Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

Issues can be categorized into those associated with

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Unformatted text preview: arries its own suite of ethical issues. “Humanising” any animal is still unacceptable to many people. • Xenotransplantation carries a risk for the wider community, the major concern being the crossspecies transmission of infectious agents such as viruses (particularly retroviruses). • Research to improve the success rate of xenotransplants is needed (especially testing animal to human transplants in clinical trials). These are difficult and expensive. Many argue that it would be better to pursue stem cell technologies and improve existing human to human transplant success rates. 1. ESCs are pluripotent, with the correct stimulus they can differentiate into every type of cell (apart from placental tissue). As their name suggests, their only source is from embryos. ASC are multipotent, they can differentiate into a limited range of tissues, usually related to their tissue of origin. The name ASC is misleading as they are found in umbilical cord blood, children and adults. ASC are found in a limited range of tissue types (e.g. blood, skin, bone marrow). 2. ESC therapies are only undertaken in a limited research capacity. This is because the stem cells are taken from very young embryos (about five days old), which results in the destruction of an embryo. Another argument against ESC research is that it is the beginning of reproductive cloning, which many groups feel very strongly opposed to. ASC therapies are less controversial because the cells are harvested from living donors, and their removal does not cause damage or death to the donor. For this reason ASC therapies are already in use (e.g. bone marrow transplants). Note: Currently the source of embryos used in ESC research come from excess embryos created for in vitro fertilization. They are donated with consent to be used for the research. 3. Student's own account. Note: Some points of discussion are outlined below: Ethical issues to be considered include: • The moral implications of using human embryos in an exploitative way, i.e. the embryo from which the stem cell li...
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.

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