Unformatted text preview: d cannot help
regulate blood pressure in the way that a kidney can.
There is also a risk of infection (this is higher with
peritoneal dialysis). 6. The clot and bubble trap are necessary in order to
remove small blood coagulations (clotting) and air
bubbles which might form during the dialysis process.
If these were allowed to enter the bloodstream
they could cause stroke or embolism (blood vessel
obstruction). Kidney Transplants (page 207)
1. 2. 3. Acute renal failure arises suddenly as a result
of infection, blood loss, or dehydration. ARF is
characterized by a very sudden drop in urine volume.
Chronic renal failure develops over months or years
as a result of poorly controlled diabetes or high
blood pressure, or chronic kidney disase. Unlike ARF,
recovery from CRF is not possible.
(a) Creatinine is produced at a relatively constant
rate and is usually filtered out by the kidneys, so
if the levels increase in the blood it would indicate
that the kidneys are not operating normally.
(b) Creatinine clearance is a better measure of
renal function than serum creatinine because
it indicates early if kidneys are failing. Serum
creatinine levels will only rise when kidney
function is already seriously impaired.
Kidney transplantation (if the tissue is a good
match) offers a high chance of success and a
normal life away from the constraints of continual
dialysis. Problems include the need to take
immunosuppressant drugs and the risk that a suitable The Menstrual Cycle (page 213)
1. (a) FSH
(b) LH 2. (a) Estrogen.
(b) Promotes repair and growth of the uterine lining.
(c) The follicles are reabsorbed. 3. (a) Progesterone (estrogen in smaller amounts).
(b) Promotes full development of the uterine
lining (endometrium). If fertilization occurs,
progesterone maintains the thickened
endometrium and acts to prevent further follicle
development. 4. Menstruation triggered by a sharp drop in
progesterone levels following degeneration of the
corpus luteum. Control of the Menstrual Cycle (page 214)
1. See table at the top of the next column. 2. In general principle,...
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- Winter '13