Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

It is a powerful muscle that prevents the loss of the

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Unformatted text preview: d cannot help regulate blood pressure in the way that a kidney can. There is also a risk of infection (this is higher with peritoneal dialysis). 6. The clot and bubble trap are necessary in order to remove small blood coagulations (clotting) and air bubbles which might form during the dialysis process. If these were allowed to enter the bloodstream they could cause stroke or embolism (blood vessel obstruction). Kidney Transplants (page 207) 1. 2. 3. Acute renal failure arises suddenly as a result of infection, blood loss, or dehydration. ARF is characterized by a very sudden drop in urine volume. Chronic renal failure develops over months or years as a result of poorly controlled diabetes or high blood pressure, or chronic kidney disase. Unlike ARF, recovery from CRF is not possible. (a) Creatinine is produced at a relatively constant rate and is usually filtered out by the kidneys, so if the levels increase in the blood it would indicate that the kidneys are not operating normally. (b) Creatinine clearance is a better measure of renal function than serum creatinine because it indicates early if kidneys are failing. Serum creatinine levels will only rise when kidney function is already seriously impaired. Kidney transplantation (if the tissue is a good match) offers a high chance of success and a normal life away from the constraints of continual dialysis. Problems include the need to take immunosuppressant drugs and the risk that a suitable The Menstrual Cycle (page 213) 1. (a) FSH (b) LH 2. (a) Estrogen. (b) Promotes repair and growth of the uterine lining. (c) The follicles are reabsorbed. 3. (a) Progesterone (estrogen in smaller amounts). (b) Promotes full development of the uterine lining (endometrium). If fertilization occurs, progesterone maintains the thickened endometrium and acts to prevent further follicle development. 4. Menstruation triggered by a sharp drop in progesterone levels following degeneration of the corpus luteum. Control of the Menstrual Cycle (page 214) 1. See table at the top of the next column. 2. In general principle,...
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