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Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

Mode of action diffuses between tissues plasma and

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Unformatted text preview: +), or sodium bicarbonate by combining with sodium ions. Negatively charged proteins also associate with H+. (g) Nutrient supply: Blood component: Plasma Mode of action: Glucose is carried in the plasma and is taken up by cells (made available throughout the body to all tissues). (h) Tissue repair: Blood components: Platelets and leukocytes Mode of action: Platelets initiate the cascade of reactions involved in clotting and wound repair. Leukocytes (some types) engulf bacteria and foreign material, preventing or halting infection. (i) Hormone, lipid, and fat soluble vitamin transport: Blood component: α-globulins Mode of action: α-globulins bind these substances and carry them in the plasma. This prevents them being filtered in the kidneys and lost in the urine. 2. 1. (a) They have the ability to self renew while maintaining an undifferentiated state. (b) A stem cell has the capacity to differentiate into specialized cells types (potency). 2. (a) Myeloid progenitor cells: megakaryocyte (and platelets), monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes (neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils), and red blood cells. (b) Lymphoid progenitor cells: T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and NK lymphocytes. 3. The main purpose of ASC are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found. Examples are: – Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to all the types of blood cells, red blood cells, lymphocytes, leukocytes and platelets. – Bone marrow stromal cells (mesenchymal stem cells) give rise to a variety of cell types including bone cells (osteocytes), cartilage cells (chondrocytes), fat cells (adipocytes) and connective tissue cells such as tendons. – Neural stem cells in the brain can produce nerve cells (neurons) and the non-neuronal cells astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. – Epithelial stem cells that line the digestive tract give rise to absorptive cells, globet cells, Paneth cells and enteroendocrine cells. – Skin stem cells in the basal layer of the epidermis form keratinocytes which protect the skin. Follicular stem cells at the base of...
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