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Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

Nucleus forms a large proportion of the cell role

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Unformatted text preview: . Role: In early stages, secretes the matrix that will be the structural component of bone. Provides strength. Golgi apparatus Cytoplasm, mitochondria Plasma membrane, vacuoles Plasma membrane, vacuoles Endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, nucleus Chloroplasts Centrioles, nucleus Lysosomes Plasma membrane, Golgi apparatus Basic Cell Structure (page 17) A generalized cell exhibits most of the characteristic features of a relatively unspecialized cell. It is not intended to represent any particular cell type but to illustrate features that collectively can be found in a range of cells. 2. (a) Phagocytiic white blood cell: Features: Engulfs bacteria and other foreign material by phagocytosis. Role: Destroys pathogens and other foreign material as well as cellular debris (b) Erythrocyte: Features: Biconcave cell, lacking mitochondria, nucleus, and most internal membranes. Contains the oxygen-transporting pigment, haemoglobin. Role: Uptake, transport, and release of oxygen to the tissues. Some transport of CO2. Lack of organelles creates more space for oxygen transport. Lack of mitochondria prevents oxygen use. (c) Retinal rod (photoreceptor) cell: Features: Long, narrow cell with light-sensitive pigment (rhodopsin) embedded in the membranes. Role: Detection of light: light causes a structural change in the membranes and leads to a nerve impulse (result is visual perception). (d) Skeletal muscle cell: Features: Cylindrical shape with banded myofibrils. Capable of contraction (shortening). Role: Move voluntary muscles acting on skeleton. (e) Intestinal goblet cell: Features: Flask-shaped cell with basal nucleus and a cell interior filled with mucus globules. Role: Secrete mucus to protect the epithelium from abrasion and from the action of the enzymes involved in digesting the food. (f) Motor neuron: Features: Cell body with a long extension (the axon) ending in synaptic bodies. Axon is insulated with a sheath of fatty material (myelin). Role: Rapid conduction of motor nerve impulses from the spinal cord to effectors (e.g. muscle). (g) Spermatzoon: Biozone International...
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