Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

Organs of excretion kidneys skin poisons origin

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Unformatted text preview: ick and cost-effective. 2. Urine is voided and its role is to rid the body of nitrogenous wastes and excess ions. Depending on diet etc, urine pH can vary quite widely, as the kidneys adjust the composition of the blood. In contrast, the pH of blood can not vary to the same extent. it must continuously circulate and the efficiency of metabolic processes depends on it staying within narrow limits. 3. (a) The presence of red blood cells in the urine (hematouria) and therefore bleeding in the urinogenital tract. (b) Infection in the urinogenital tract. 4. Athletes withhold drug use for a period before testing so that the body has had time to break down and metabolize the drug and excrete it (thereby avoiding detection). Waste Products in Humans (page 197) 1. sodium leading to the toxic effects of high ion levels. Poisoning of the body with its own metabolic wastes eventually leads to coma and death. The Urinary System (page 200) 1. The urinary system comprises the kidneys, which produce urine containing the products of excretion, the renal blood vessels, which transfer blood to and from the kidneys, the ureters, which carry urine to the bladder from the kidney, the bladder, which stores urine before it is passed out of the body, and the urethra, which conducts urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. 2. The liver produces urea from ammonia (urea cycle) and bile pigments from the breakdown of hemoglobin. 3. A hormone (human chorionic gonadotropin or HCG) produced in excess during establishment of pregnancy. 2. 99.4% – 3. In maintaining its filtration rates, the kidney requires blood at a higher pressure than other organs because large quantities of fluid must be forced through the capillaries of the glomerulus. 4. Fatty connective tissue insulates and protects the 4. – – Problems of fluid retention: edema and retention of fluids containing toxins and waste products. Problems of salt retention leading to hypertension and heart problems as the heart works harder to move the blood through constricted vessels. Problems with the...
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.

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