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Unformatted text preview: ick and cost-effective. 2. Urine is voided and its role is to rid the body of
nitrogenous wastes and excess ions. Depending on
diet etc, urine pH can vary quite widely, as the kidneys
adjust the composition of the blood. In contrast, the
pH of blood can not vary to the same extent. it must
continuously circulate and the efficiency of metabolic
processes depends on it staying within narrow limits. 3. (a) The presence of red blood cells in the urine
(hematouria) and therefore bleeding in the
(b) Infection in the urinogenital tract. 4. Athletes withhold drug use for a period before testing
so that the body has had time to break down and
metabolize the drug and excrete it (thereby avoiding
detection). Waste Products in Humans (page 197)
1. sodium leading to the toxic effects of high ion
Poisoning of the body with its own metabolic
wastes eventually leads to coma and death. The Urinary System (page 200)
1. The urinary system comprises the kidneys, which
produce urine containing the products of excretion,
the renal blood vessels, which transfer blood to and
from the kidneys, the ureters, which carry urine to the
bladder from the kidney, the bladder, which stores
urine before it is passed out of the body, and the
urethra, which conducts urine from the bladder to the
outside of the body. 2. The liver produces urea from ammonia (urea cycle)
and bile pigments from the breakdown of hemoglobin. 3. A hormone (human chorionic gonadotropin or
HCG) produced in excess during establishment of
pregnancy. 2. 99.4% – 3. In maintaining its filtration rates, the kidney requires
blood at a higher pressure than other organs because
large quantities of fluid must be forced through the
capillaries of the glomerulus. 4. Fatty connective tissue insulates and protects the 4. –
– Problems of fluid retention: edema and retention
of fluids containing toxins and waste products.
Problems of salt retention leading to hypertension
and heart problems as the heart works harder to
move the blood through constricted vessels.
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.
- Winter '13