Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

Region cartilage ciliated epithelium goblet cells

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Unformatted text preview: turation declines markedly and oxygen is released (to the tissues). 4. (a) Fetal Hb has a higher affinity for oxygen than adult Hb (it can carry 20-30% more oxygen). (b) This higher affinity is necessary because it enables oxygen to pass from the maternal Hb to the fetal Hb across the placenta. 5. (a) The Bohr effect. (b) Actively respiring tissue consumes a lot of oxygen and generates a lot of carbon dioxide. This lowers tissue pH causing more oxygen to be released from the hemoglobin to where it is required. 6. Myoglobin preferentially picks up oxygen from Hb and is able to act as an oxygen store in the muscle. 7. Any two of: Hemoglobin, which picks up H+ generated by the dissociation of carbonic acid. Bicarbonate alone (from this dissociation), and combined with Na+ (from the dissociation of NaCl). Blood proteins. ✓ 2 Bronchus ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗ ✓ ✓ ✗ very little ✓ 3 4 5 5. Bronchioles gradually lost Alveolar ✗ duct Alveoli ✗ ✗ The lack of surfactant and high surface tension in the alveoli result in the collapse of the lungs to an uninflated state after each breath. Breathing is difficult and labored, oxygen delivery is inadequate and, if untreated, death usually follows in a few hours. Measuring Lung Function (page 163) 1. 2. 3. (a) Taller people generally have larger lung volumes and capacities. (b) Males have larger lung volumes and capacities than females. (c) After adulthood, lung volume and capacity declines with age. Children have smaller lung volumes and lung capacities than adults. (a) Forced volume is a more useful indicator of impairment of lung function than a tidal volume because people use only a small proportion of their lung volume in normal breathing. (b) Spirometry can be used to measure the extent of recovery of lung function after treatment. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Tidal volume Expiratory reserve volume Residual volume Inspiratory capacity Vital capacity Total lung capacity vol: vol: vol: vol: vol: vol: 0.5 1.0 1.2 3.8 4.8 6.0 L L L L L L 4. G: Tidal volume is increasing as a result of exercise. 5. PV: 15 x 400 = 6000 cm3 o...
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.

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