Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

The pituitary responds to the low estrogen levels by

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Unformatted text preview: ure of the blood being pumped from the heart. Note: The elasticity also helps to even out the surges that occur with each contraction of the heart. This keeps the blood moving forward in a continuous flow. (b) Blood pressure is low within the arterioles. 3. 4. (c) Endothelium (d) Blood (or lumen) The smooth muscle around arteries helps to regulate blood flow and pressure. By contracting or relaxing it alters the diameter of the artery and adjusts the volume of blood as required. (a) The diameter of the artery increases. (b) The blood pressure decreases. Biozone International 2009 Photocopying Prohibited Anatomy and Physiology 1. Humoral. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (page 102) 1. Veins (page 108) 18 Blood (page 111) Anatomy and Physiology 1. Answers given may provide more detail than required. (b) Protection against disease: Blood component: White blood cells Mode of action: Engulf bacteria, mediate immune reactions, and allergic and inflammatory responses. (c) Communication between cells, tissues and organs: Blood component: Hormones Mode of action: Specific chemicals which are carried in the blood to target tissues, where they interact with specific receptors and bring about an appropriate response. (d) Oxygen transport: Blood component: Hemoglobin molecule of erythrocytes. Mode of action: Binds oxygen at the lungs and releases it at the tissues. (e) Carbon dioxide transport: Blood components: Mainly plasma (most carbon dioxide is carried as bicarbonate in the plasma, a small amount is dissolved in the plasma). Red blood cells (a small amount (10-20%) of carbon dioxide is carried bound to hemoglobin). Mode of action: Diffuses between tissues, plasma, and lungs according to concentration gradient. (f) Buffer against pH changes: Blood components: Hemoglobin molecule of erythrocytes. Plasma bicarbonate and proteins. Mode of action: Free hydrogen ions are picked up and carried by the hemoglobin molecule (removed from solution). Plasma bicarbonate can form either carbonic acid by picking up a hydrogen ion (H...
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.

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