Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

These techniques may produce monoclonal antibodies

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Unformatted text preview: eign antibody (Herceptin) to HER2 surface proteins alerts the immune system, which then targets the Herceptin (and the HER2protein to which it is attached). • (a) Herceptin enables T cells to recognize cells with Her2-Herceptin complexes (i.e cancer-forming cells) and destroy them. (b) Herceptin blocks the cell's signalling pathway and prevents the cell from dividing. • • • (a) The principle of gene therapy is to correct a genetic disorder of metabolism by correction, replacement, or supplementation of a faulty gene with a corrected version. Note: Some techniques involve culturing corrected cells ex vivo. Injection of corrected cells into the patient relieves the symptoms of the disorder but does cure it. (b) Medical areas where gene therapy might be used: Inherited genetic disorders of metabolism, cancers and other non-infectious acquired diseases, and infectious diseases (e.g. viral infections). 2. 1. (a) Multiple sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder in which the T-lymphocytes and monocytes target and destroy the myelin sheath surrounding neurons. (b) Rheumatoid arthritis: An inflammatory joint disease caused by autoimmune destruction of cartilage. Lymphocytes are activated and cytokinins are expressed in the inflamed areas. 2. Autoimmune diseases are difficult to treat effectively because the trigger of the disease is often unknown and each disease can affect the body in a different way. Note: Of the two types of autoimmune disorders, organ-specific and non-organ specific, the latter is the more difficult to treat because it is spread widely throughout the body. 3. AIDS sufferers develop a range of debilitating infections because their immune system is already compromised and they are unable to fight off even minor infections. Both CF and SCID are the result of simple gene mutations that have already been identified. This makes them attractive being potentially easier to target than a disorder involving a number of genes. 1. Breathing ventilates the lungs, rene...
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.

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