Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

Thesodiumsaltcontentofhumanmilkislower than cows milk

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Unformatted text preview: other’s reproductive organs return to a normal state more rapidly. • While it continues, breastfeeding reduces the likelihood of another pregnancy. As an infant becomes physically more capable, it develops the gross and fine motor skills to perform increasingly more advanced tasks. The infant begins to manipulate objects, talk, move with purpose, and play (with the objective of play being to further develop cognitive skills). 7. (a) Colostrum is very high in maternal antibodies and has very little sugar and virtually no fat. Milk formed later has a higher fat content. (b) It is essential that the baby’s system be provided with a good supply of antibodies in preparation for its early days outside the uterus. The composition of colostrum also assists in the adjustment of the infant gut to taking in food. 8. The breast feeding mother should feed more frequently (on demand as the infant becomes hungrier) and this will induce greater milk production. 1. Syndactyly arises when the rate of apoptosis in the developing limb has been too low to remove the tissue between the digits before the close of the developmental sequence (hence the lack of differentiation between the two toes, which remain partly joined). 2. Any one of the reasons from the following explanation: Apoptosis is a carefully regulated process, which occurs in response to particular signalling factors. Necrosis, in contrast, is the result of traumatic damage. Apoptosis results in membrane-bound cell fragments whereas necrosis results in lysing and spillage of cell contents. Apoptosis results in cell shrinkage and contraction of the chromatin, which does not occur in necrosis. 3. Roles of apoptosis, (a) and (b) any two of the following in any order: – Resorption of the larval tail during amphibian metamorphosis. – Sloughing of the endometrium during menstruation. – The formation of the proper connections (synapses) between neurons in the brain (this requires that surplus cells be eliminated by apoptosis). – Controlled removal of virus-infe...
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.

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