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Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

Tight junction prevent leakage of extracellular fluid

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Unformatted text preview: nisms, e.g. hormones from endocrine cells, digestive secretions from exocrine cells. • Expulsion of wastes from unicellular organisms, e.g. Paramecium and Amoeba expelling residues from food vacuoles. 4. 5. Any type of cytosis (unlike diffusion) is an active process involving the use of ATP. Low oxygen inhibits oxidative metabolism and lowers the energy yield from the respiration of substrates (ATP availability drops). (a) (b) (c) (d) acquire mutations. Mutations to the proto-oncogenes, with the consequent formation of oncogenes, results in uncontrolled cell division. Mutations to the tumorsuppressor genes results in a failure to regulate the cell repair processes and a failure of the cell to stop dividing when damaged. Levels of Organization (page 32) 1. (a) Organ system: Respiratory system, muscular system, nervous system, reproductive system. (b) Organs: Brain, heart, spleen, pancreas, liver, testis. (c) Tissues: Blood, bone, cardiac muscle, cartilage, squamous epithelium. (d) Cells: Leucocyte, mast cell, neuron, Schwann cell, astrocyte. (e) Organelles: Lysosome, ribosomes, peroxisome. (f) Chemical: Epinephrine (adrenaline), collagen, DNA, phospholipid, ATP. 2. Histology Oxygen: Diffusion. Cellular debris: Phagocytosis. Water: Osmosis. Glucose: Facilitated diffusion. Mitosis and the Cell Cycle (page 29) Anatomy and Physiology 1. (a) The final chromosome status of a cell following mitosis is exactly the same as its parent. In contrast, a cell following meiosis has half the chromosome complement of the parent, i.e. it goes from diploid to haploid. (b) The biological role of mitosis is in growth, development, and repair of tissues, whereas the role of meiosis is to produce haploid gametes for the purposes of sexual reproduction. 2. Required answer in bold: The DNA must be replicated to form a second chromatid. The chromosomes must condense to avoid tangling. 3. A. Interphase: The stage between cell divisions (mitoses). Just before mitosis, the DNA is replicated to form an extra copy of each chromosom...
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