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Unformatted text preview: Christmas factor). 3:
4: Macrophage ingests a microbe and destroys it.
The release of endotoxins from the microbe
induces the macrophage to produce interleukin-1
which is released into the blood.
Interleukin-1 travels in the blood to the
hypothalamus of the brain where it stimulates the
production of large amounts of prostaglandins.
Prostaglandins cause resetting of the thermostat
to a higher temperature, causing fever. Biozone International 2009 Photocopying Prohibited 23
1. Lymph has a similar composition to tissue fluid but
has more leukocytes (derived from lymphoid tissues).
Note: Tissue fluid is similar in composition to plasma
(i.e. containing water, ions, urea, proteins, glucose
etc.) but lacks the large proteins found in plasma. Antibodies (page 141)
1. Antibodies are proteins produced in response to
antigens; they recognize and bind antigens. Antigens
are foreign substances (often proteins) that promote
the formation of antibodies (invoke an immune
response). 2. Lymph returns tissue fluid to general circulation, and
with the blood, circulates lymphocytes around the
body. 2. 3. (a) Lymph nodes: Filter foreign material from the
lymph by trapping it in fibers. They also produce
(b) Bone marrow: Produce many kinds of
white blood cells: monocytes, macrophages,
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, T and B
lymphocytes. (a) The immune system must distinguish self from
non-self in order to recognize foreign material
(and destroy it) and its own tissue (and not
(b) During development, any B cells that react to the
body’s own antigens are selectively destroyed.
This process leads to self tolerance.
(c) Autoimmune disease (disorder).
(d) Any two of: Grave’s disease (thyroid
enlargement), rheumatoid arthritis (primarily joint
inflammation), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
(caused by immune destruction of the insulinsecreting cells in the pancreas), hemolytic anemia
(premature destruction of red blood cells), and
probably multiple sclerosis (destruction of myelin
around nerves). 3. Antibodies inact...
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- Winter '13