Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

A clotting factors catalyze the conversion of

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Unformatted text preview: Christmas factor). 3: 4: Macrophage ingests a microbe and destroys it. The release of endotoxins from the microbe induces the macrophage to produce interleukin-1 which is released into the blood. Interleukin-1 travels in the blood to the hypothalamus of the brain where it stimulates the production of large amounts of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins cause resetting of the thermostat to a higher temperature, causing fever. Biozone International 2009 Photocopying Prohibited 23 1. Lymph has a similar composition to tissue fluid but has more leukocytes (derived from lymphoid tissues). Note: Tissue fluid is similar in composition to plasma (i.e. containing water, ions, urea, proteins, glucose etc.) but lacks the large proteins found in plasma. Antibodies (page 141) 1. Antibodies are proteins produced in response to antigens; they recognize and bind antigens. Antigens are foreign substances (often proteins) that promote the formation of antibodies (invoke an immune response). 2. Lymph returns tissue fluid to general circulation, and with the blood, circulates lymphocytes around the body. 2. 3. (a) Lymph nodes: Filter foreign material from the lymph by trapping it in fibers. They also produce lymphocytes. (b) Bone marrow: Produce many kinds of white blood cells: monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, T and B lymphocytes. (a) The immune system must distinguish self from non-self in order to recognize foreign material (and destroy it) and its own tissue (and not destroy it). (b) During development, any B cells that react to the body’s own antigens are selectively destroyed. This process leads to self tolerance. (c) Autoimmune disease (disorder). (d) Any two of: Grave’s disease (thyroid enlargement), rheumatoid arthritis (primarily joint inflammation), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (caused by immune destruction of the insulinsecreting cells in the pancreas), hemolytic anemia (premature destruction of red blood cells), and probably multiple sclerosis (destruction of myelin around nerves). 3. Antibodies inact...
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