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Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

B during development any b cells that react to the

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Unformatted text preview: ivate pathogens in four main ways: Neutralization describes the way in which antibodies bind to viral binding sites and bacterial toxins and stop their activity. Antibodies may also inactivate particulate antigens, such as bacteria, by sticking them together in clumps. Soluble antigens may be bound by antibodies and fall out of solution (precipitation) so that they lose activity. Antibodies also activate complement (a defense system involving serum proteins), tagging foreign cells so that they can be recognized and destroyed. 4. (a) Phagocytosis: Antibodies promote the formation of inactive clumps of foreign material that can easily be engulfed and destroyed by a phagocytic cell. (b) Inflammation: Antibodies are involved in activation of complement (the defense system involving serum proteins which participate in the inflammatory response and other immune system activities). (c) Bacterial cell lysis: Antibodies are involved in tagging foreign cells for destruction and in the activation of complement (the defense system involving serum proteins which participate in the lysis of foreign cells). Allergies and Hypersensitivity (page 138) 1. Histamine mediates the symptoms of hypersensitivity reactions such as inflammation, airway constriction, and itching and watering of the eyes and nose. 2. Sensitized: The formation of antibodies (to an antigen) after exposure to that antigen. Once sensitized, another exposure to the antigen results in an antibody-antigen reaction (and the symptoms of an allergic response). 3. Bronchodilators dilate the bronchioles, alleviating airway constriction and allowing easier breathing. The Immune System (page 139) 1. (a) Humoral immune system: Production of antibodies against specific antigens. The antibodies disable circulating antigens. (b) Cell-mediated immune system: Involves the production of T cells, which destroy pathogens or their toxins by direct contact or by producing substances that regulate the activity of other cells in the immune system. 2. In the bone marrow (adults) or liver (fetuses). 3. (a) Bone marrow (b)...
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