Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

B nervous tissue tissue comprising densely packed

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Unformatted text preview: the body, comprising cells widely dispersed in a semi-fluid matrix (or fluid in the case of blood and lymph). (d) Epithelial tissues: Single or multiple layers of simple cells forming the lining of internal and external body surfaces. Cells rest on a basement membrane of fibers and collagen and may be specialized. Note: Epithelial cells may be variously shaped: squamous (flat), cuboidal, columnar etc. Oxygen: Diffusion. Cellular debris: Phagocytosis. Water: Osmosis. Glucose: Facilitated diffusion. Human Organ Systems (page 35) 1. Muscular system: movement of body (limbs, locomotion), and its component parts (e.g. gut). 2. Skeletal system: support and protection of tissues and organs, movement (with muscular system), production of blood cells. 3. Integumentary system: physical and chemical protection of tissues, thermoregulation, synthesis of vitamin D precursor. 4. Urinary system: excretion of nitrogenous wastes, toxins, and other metabolic waste products. Maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance. 5. Digestive system: physical and chemical digestion and Biozone International 2009 Photocopying Prohibited 7 absorption of ingested food to provide the body's fuel. 6. 7. Nervous system: regulates all visceral and motor functions of the body. Maintaining Homeostasis (page 39) 1. Two mechanisms operating to restore homeostasis after infection ((a) and (b) any two of): • Immune system response with the production of antibodies against the antigens of the pathogen (humoral response). • Immune system response with the production of T cells which recognize the antigens of the pathogen and destroy them directly (cell-mediated response). • Local inflammatory response (redness, pain, swelling, heat) at the site of infection. • Fever (widespread increase in body temperature). • The production of antimicrobial substances like interferon and interleukin-1. • Phagocytosis of pathogen by white blood cells. All the above aim to destroy the pathogen and/or its toxins and assist a return to hom...
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