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body, comprising cells widely dispersed in a
semi-fluid matrix (or fluid in the case of blood and
(d) Epithelial tissues: Single or multiple layers
of simple cells forming the lining of internal
and external body surfaces. Cells rest on a
basement membrane of fibers and collagen and
may be specialized. Note: Epithelial cells may
be variously shaped: squamous (flat), cuboidal,
columnar etc. Oxygen: Diffusion.
Cellular debris: Phagocytosis.
Glucose: Facilitated diffusion. Human Organ Systems (page 35)
1. Muscular system: movement of body (limbs,
locomotion), and its component parts (e.g. gut). 2. Skeletal system: support and protection of tissues and
organs, movement (with muscular system), production
of blood cells. 3. Integumentary system: physical and chemical
protection of tissues, thermoregulation, synthesis of
vitamin D precursor. 4. Urinary system: excretion of nitrogenous wastes,
toxins, and other metabolic waste products.
Maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance. 5. Digestive system: physical and chemical digestion and Biozone International 2009 Photocopying Prohibited 7
absorption of ingested food to provide the body's fuel.
7. Nervous system: regulates all visceral and motor
functions of the body. Maintaining Homeostasis (page 39)
1. Two mechanisms operating to restore homeostasis
after infection ((a) and (b) any two of):
• Immune system response with the production of antibodies against the antigens of the pathogen
• Immune system response with the production of T cells which recognize the antigens of the
pathogen and destroy them directly (cell-mediated
• Local inflammatory response (redness, pain, swelling, heat) at the site of infection.
• Fever (widespread increase in body temperature).
• The production of antimicrobial substances like interferon and interleukin-1.
• Phagocytosis of pathogen by white blood cells. All the above aim to destroy the pathogen and/or
its toxins and assist a return to hom...
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- Winter '13