Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

B the recipients marrow is often depleted first so

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Unformatted text preview: viral infection. In patients disadvantaged (immune suppressed) by their disorder, this could severely undermine their health. Retroviruses infect only dividing cells, so uptake can be poor. Viruses may not survive if attacked by the host’s immune system. If they do not integrate into the chromosome, the inserted genes may only function sporadically. Autoimmune Diseases (page 155) Monoclonal antibody therapies are called targeted therapies because they target only the cells with the specific antigens for the antibody involved - no others. Gene Therapy (page 153) 1. the recipient's untreated cells. Biozone International 2009 Photocopying Prohibited 27 The Human Respiratory System (page 161) 1. (a) The structural arrangement (lobes, each with its own bronchus and dividing many times before terminating in numerous alveoli) provides an immense surface area for gas exchange. (b) Gas exchange takes place in the alveoli. 2. Respiratory membrane is the layered junction between the alveolar cells, the endothelial cells of the capillaries, and their associated basement membranes. It provides a surface across which gases can freely move. (b) The CO2 is the product of cellular respiration in the tissues. Note: Some texts give a value of 4.0% for exhaled air (100X the CO2 content of inhaled air). (c) The dead space air is not involved in gas exchange therefore retains a higher oxygen content than the air that leaves the alveoli air. This raises the oxygen content of the expired air. Gas Transport in Humans (page 165) Completed table: Hemoglobin binds oxygen reversibly, taking up oxygen when oxygen tensions are high (lungs), carry oxygen to where it is required (the tissues) and release it. Region Cartilage Ciliated epithelium Goblet cells (mucus) Smooth muscle Connective tissue 1 Trachea ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 3. (a) As oxygen level in the blood increases, more oxygen combines with hemoglobin. However, the relationship is not linear: Hb saturation remains high even when blood oxygen levels fall very low. (b) When oxygen level (partial pressure) in the blood or tissues is low, hemoglobin sa...
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