Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

C it is adaptive to stop responding to stimuli that

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Unformatted text preview: g Prohibited Signal Transduction (page 95) 1. (a) Mechanism 1: Interaction of the hormone with plasma membrane receptors followed by activation of a second messenger (e.g. cyclic AMP). (b) Mechanism 2: Interaction of the hormone with intracellular receptors directly, without the involvement of a second messenger. 2. Both involve interaction of the hormone with a specific receptor molecule, which recognizes the hormone and initiates a cascade of reactions leading to a physiological response. 3. The binding of a hormone molecule to a receptor, initiates a series of reactions within the cell that result in often far reaching effects. In many cases, hormones exert their effects by influencing the enzymes associated with membranes or genetic control. The Endocrine System (page 96) 1. A neurotransmitter is a chemical messenger that is released at a chemical synapse and stimulates a post-synaptic cell. In contrast, hormones are chemical messengers that are released from specialized cells into the blood where they circulate and stimulate target cells. Note: Some hormones (e.g. epinephrine) may also function as neurotransmitters if they occur at synapses. Anatomy and Physiology Exemplar results for two point threshold test (in mm). Results will vary between individuals and trials, but the general trend of the data should be: Forearm: 26 mm Back of hand: 9 mm Palm of hand: 7 mm Fingertip: 1-2 mm Lips: < 1 mm Cell Signalling (page 94) 16 2. (a) Pituitary gland - master gland secreting at least nine hormones..... (b) Ovaries - produce estrogen and progesterone in response to hormones from the pituitary (c) Pineal gland - Secretes melatonin to regulate sleep patterns.... (d) Parathyroid glands - the hormone from this gland regulates the levels of calcium in the blood. (e) Thyroid - produces hormones involved in the regulation of metabolic rate. 3. Any number of examples are possible. Typical examples include: (a) Hormonal stimulus: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary stimulates...
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