Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

D blood cell production the marrow located within the

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Unformatted text preview: the body, most notably calcium and phosphorus. 3. (a) Epiphyseal plate (b) Diaphysis (c) Periosteum Biozone International 2009 Photocopying Prohibited 9 (d) Epiphysis 4. Osteoblasts are bone-producing cells which secrete a matrix of calcium phosphate and collagen fibers that form the hard part of bone. Mature osteoblasts are called osteocytes when they become embedded within the matrix that forms the deposited bone. 5. connective tissue, whereas in cartilaginous joints the bone ends are covered with cartilage. The Haversian canal system contains the blood vessels and nerves so that wastes can be removed from the bone tissue and the bone cells can be supplied with oxygen, nutrients, and sensory information. 5. (a) Synovial joints have a joint capsule separating the bone articulating bones, which contains synovial fluid (secreted by the synovial membranes). They allow free movement in one or more planes and are usually reinforced by ligaments. (b) Synovial fluid reduces friction between the articular cartilage and other tissues in joints to lubricate and cushion them during movement. The cartilage lines the bone ends and provides the resistance to load and shock. 6. Ligaments or tendons are slow to heal because of their poor blood supply (blood delivers oxygen and nutrients to speed healing). Joints are also moved constantly so the ligaments can stay under strain unless immobilized (which itself slows healing). The Human Skeleton (page 51) 1. Scapula Humerus Rib Lumbar vertebra Ilium Sacrum Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Tibia Tarsals Metatarsals Cranium Facial bones Clavicle Sternum Femur Patella Fibula Phalanges (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Lumbar vertebrae Thoracic vertebrae Atlas (cervical 1) Cervical vertebra Sacrum 3. The female pelvis is larger and broader than the male pelvis which is taller, narrower, and more compact. The female inlet (space between the bones) is also larger and oval, whereas the male's is more heartshaped). These differences are associated with accommodating t...
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