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Unformatted text preview: e.g. contaminated during storage or
transport) and the chance of rejection therefore
• Removal of a fraction of a kidney or liver from a living donor is not risk free for the donor,
especially in countries with inadequate health
care facilities. There is evidence that donors
themselves end up on transplant waiting lists.
• Even well matched human transplants often fail.
• The growing reliance on living donors creates challenges for the guiding principles of the donor
programmes. Living donors must act voluntarily
and without financial incentive (some policy
makers want to allow payment for donation).
Payment for organs increases the risk that donors
will be medically unsuitable or put themselves at
• Global safety standards are not yet in place, despite regional guidelines. Issues of donor
and recipient confidentiality are still to be fully
• Recipients need to continue with immunosuppressant drugs to prevent transplant
rejection; these have their own side effects and
• There is an widening gap between the need for organs and the number available. 26
ability to be cultured indefinitely.
3. 4. Anatomy and Physiology 5. 6. Monoclonal antibodies produced using mouse
(foreign) antibodies are likely to cause adverse
immune reactions in some people. Newer methods
include using genetic engineering techniques to
selectively alter existing mouse antibodies to confer
more human characteristics. Genetic engineering
can also be used to construct chimaeric monoclonal
antibodies using variable regions derived from mouse
sources and constant regions derived from human
sources. These techniques may produce monoclonal
antibodies that are more compatible with the human
immune system. 6.
• (a) Overexpression of HER2 causes large amounts
of HER2 protein, which causes the cell to divide
more often than normal, producing a tumor.
(b) HER2 protein is a normal component on the
surfaces of some cells and is not recognized by
the immune system as being of concern. The
attachment of a for...
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- Winter '13