Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

G accident and brain death or death while in

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Unformatted text preview: e.g. contaminated during storage or transport) and the chance of rejection therefore higher. • Removal of a fraction of a kidney or liver from a living donor is not risk free for the donor, especially in countries with inadequate health care facilities. There is evidence that donors themselves end up on transplant waiting lists. • Even well matched human transplants often fail. • The growing reliance on living donors creates challenges for the guiding principles of the donor programmes. Living donors must act voluntarily and without financial incentive (some policy makers want to allow payment for donation). Payment for organs increases the risk that donors will be medically unsuitable or put themselves at high risk. • Global safety standards are not yet in place, despite regional guidelines. Issues of donor and recipient confidentiality are still to be fully addressed. • Recipients need to continue with immunosuppressant drugs to prevent transplant rejection; these have their own side effects and complications. • There is an widening gap between the need for organs and the number available. 26 ability to be cultured indefinitely. 3. 4. Anatomy and Physiology 5. 6. Monoclonal antibodies produced using mouse (foreign) antibodies are likely to cause adverse immune reactions in some people. Newer methods include using genetic engineering techniques to selectively alter existing mouse antibodies to confer more human characteristics. Genetic engineering can also be used to construct chimaeric monoclonal antibodies using variable regions derived from mouse sources and constant regions derived from human sources. These techniques may produce monoclonal antibodies that are more compatible with the human immune system. 6. • (a) Overexpression of HER2 causes large amounts of HER2 protein, which causes the cell to divide more often than normal, producing a tumor. (b) HER2 protein is a normal component on the surfaces of some cells and is not recognized by the immune system as being of concern. The attachment of a for...
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.

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