Chapter01c - The Earth and Its Atmosphere 1 Vertical...

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Unformatted text preview: The Earth and Its Atmosphere: 1. Vertical structure 2. Weather and climate Mass,Weight, Density, Pressure • Mass M : ♦ property of matter, ♦ SI unit: kg. Other units: 1kg=1000 g, 1 lb=450 g • Weight : ♦ a force, has a magnitude and direction (vector). ♦ weight = mass x gravity g(Earth)= 9.78 m/s 2 ♦ SI unit: kg m/s 2-> N g(Mars)= 3.7 m/s 2 • Density ρ : ♦ mass per unit volume: density = mass / volume ♦ SI unit: kg/m 3 , Other: g/cm 3 • Pressure p : ♦ p= force/area ♦ SI units: Pa=N/m 2 , Other: 1bar=100 Pa W Atmospheric pressure and air density Atmospheric pressure and density decrease with altitude exponentially!!! RECAP • Atmospheric composition: • Permanent gases: N 2 , O 2 , Ar, Xe, Ne, H 2 , He • Variable gases: CO 2 ,H 2 O,O 3 ,CH 4 • Greenhouse gases : H 2 O, CO 2 , NO,CH 4 • Mass. • Weight. • Density. • Pressure . • The atmospheric pressure and density decrease with altitude . Mid-chapter brief review(s) • The earth’s atmosphere is a mixture of many gases. In a volume of dry air near the surface, nitrogen (N 2 ) occupies about 78 percent and oxygen (O 2 ) about 21 percent. • Water vapor, which normally occupies less than 4 percent in a volume of air near the surface, can condense into liquid cloud droplets or transform into delicate ice crystals. Water is the can condense into liquid cloud droplets or transform into delicate ice crystals....
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Chapter01c - The Earth and Its Atmosphere 1 Vertical...

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