Self referent comparisonsuses the idiographic

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Unformatted text preview: entative comparison group judged to be similar to that individual. Ø Self-referent comparisons—uses the idiographic tradition— compares the individual to themselves across time. Ø Norms are required to compare the score of an individual to a population to determine where the person ranks Ø The quality of the normative sample (from which the norms have been derived) is very critical; norms based on samples of convenience need to ensure that the data obtained from a group of research participants in a certain location need to be representative of the scores obtained by others need to nationalize the norms Reliability (consistency) Ø Internal consistency (e.g. item-total; split-half reliability)— consistency of portions of a measure thought to be measuring the same thing Ø Test-retest—consistency of a measure across time Ø Inter-rater—consistency between judges or raters Ø A value of 0.90 for clinical tests and 0.70 for research purposes Validity -evaulation of the degree to which the test truly measures what it is supposed to measure -content: ensuring that the tests includes items that are representative of all aspects of the underlying psychological construct of the test -concurrent: scores on the test are correlated with scores on measures of similar constructs -predictive: extent to which the test predicts a relevant outcome -discriminant: ensuring that scores on the test are uncorrelated with scores on tests of opposite or unrelated constructs -incremental: if a new measure adds much information that might be obtained by simpler, already existing methods Domains of Assessment 1. Somatic (e.g., HR, ANS responses, medical history) 2. Physical characteristic (e.g., height, weight) 3. Demographic characteristics 4. Overt behaviour (e.g., coordination, communication skills, habits) 5. Cognitive/intellectual 6. Emotional/affective 7. Environmental/social 8. Personal history Assessment Methods 1. Interviews (may include play session with child) 2. Tests/questionnaires (client, significant others) 3. Review of life records (school, health records, diaries) 4. Direct observation 5. Interviews with significant others Clinical Judgment: Problems in the Practice of Assessment Ø Improper Usage of tests and tools Ø Focus on Psychopathology Ø Judgment Heuristics: The problem of illusory correlation— assuming a relationship when there is...
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2014 for the course PSYC 433 taught by Professor Dr.k.dobson during the Winter '13 term at University of Calgary.

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