Unformatted text preview: fection rates” Reallife stories: “I got my MBA and that is why I’m rich” Personal anecdotes: “Flu shots make you sick because last year, after my shot, I was really sick” Employees in one company: “Stock ownership caused our employees to work harder!” These are not scientific
experiments- they can’t show
cause and effect!
1. One time only event does not demonstrate causation Tend to remember, and report coincidences
1. 2. Often you don’t know if ‘cause’ or ‘effect’ came first
Other things might explain the reason why the ‘cause’ and ‘effect’ go together 1.
1. 2. 3. Need to look across lots of people or companies.
Need people who experience the ‘cause’ and those that do not and see if their outcomes are different. Need to account for other things that might explain the relationship What else might explain it?
What Other things can happen to the group besides the ‘cause’ that creates the outcome
• Examples: Naturally...
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- Fall '09
- Causality, Correlation does not imply causation, Safe injection site, causal relationships, Sandra Robinson