Disease Seminar Handbook W12

The matrix also provides nutrition and lubrication of

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Unformatted text preview: itions and figures to help orient yourself when reading more complex discussion of the immune response in IBD. What is a normal immune response? What is its role in the body? In order to understand what is happening when a person has IBD it is necessary to know a little about how the healthy immune system works. The immune system  ­ a complex network of specialized cells and organs  ­ defends the body against attacks by foreign invaders such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It does this by seeking out and destroying the invaders as they enter the body. Substances capable of triggering an immune response are called antigens. Now you might be wondering – how does the immune system know what is foreign and how does it know what is native? Why are we able to recognize bacteria such as e ­coli as foreign while at the same time allowing millions of bacteria to happily flourish in our gut? Why are we able to tolerate our own lungs, but often transplant patients reject a set of lungs from a donor? The following sections should help to clarify these questions. Amazingly, (but definitely not by magic!), the immune system displays both enormous diversity and extraordinary specificity. It can recognize millions of distinctive foreign molecules and produce its own molecules and cells to match up with and counteract each of them. In order to have room for enough cells to match the millions of possible foreign invaders, the immune system stores just a few cells for each specific antigen. When an antigen appears, those few 19 specifically matched cells are stimulated to multiply into a full ­scale army. Later, to prevent this army from over ­expanding, powerful mechanisms to suppress the immune response come into play. 20 OSTEOARTHRITIS You have been assigned osteoarthritis (OA) for your independent research project. Although many of you may be familiar with the disease in a general sense, it is important to start with the basics of a healthy biological system before we can properly understand the onset, development, diagnosis and treatment of OA. It is always important to understand healthy biology before we can understand a diseased state! The following information has been compiled from general health websites and reflects a basic level of detail. As well, reference to the course text has been included. Be sure to read and understand this information before beginning your research. The Non Diseased (Normal) State (a)Healthy Connective and Muscle Tissue For information on the basics of connective tissue and muscle tissue, please refer to Chapter 1D From Cells to Organs located on pages 56...
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2014 for the course BIOL 1080 taught by Professor Dyck during the Winter '11 term at University of Guelph.

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