Disease Seminar Handbook W12

Disease Seminar Handbook W12

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Unformatted text preview: cilli, cocci, and spirilla. Bacilli are rod ­shaped and the most numerous of all types. They include coccobacilli and streptobacilli. Coci are a spherical bacteria, and are divided into bacteria that occur in pairs (ex. Diplococci), in clusters (ex. Staphylococci), and chains (ex.streptococci). Spirilla are spiral shaped bacteria, and are the least numerous type. The second method of classification is based on other characteristics, such as size, color, and chemical composition, and thus are grouped into Phylum. 15 TYPE 2 DIABETES You have been assigned type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for your independent research project. Although many of you may be familiar with the disease in a general sense, it is important to start with the basics of a healthy biological system before we can properly understand the onset, development, diagnosis and treatment of T2DM. It is always important to understand healthy biology before we can understand a diseased state! The following information has been compiled from general health websites and reflects a basic level of detail. As well, reference to the course text has been included. Be sure to read and understand this information before beginning your research. The Non Diseased (Normal) State of the Pancreas, and Glucose Homeostasis a) The Healthy Pancreas and Liver For information on the normal functioning of hormones, and especially the pancreas, please refer to pages 164 165 (general info), 178 180 (pancreas), 250 251 (liver) of your text. By no means are you expected to memorize everything in the chapter, but you will likely find it to be a great resource for definitions and figures to help orient yourself when reading more complex discussions of T2DM. The healthy pancreas The pancreas is a relatively small organ that is located in the abdomen, posterior to the stomach. It is comprised of millions of islets, called islets of Langerhans (called after the German pathologist who first described them), whose role is to secrete hormones in response to metabolic demands. The pancreas also has a role in the digestive system, as it secretes pancreatic juice, a necessary component to neutralize the acidity of the food as it exits the stomach. Figure 1: Location and structure of the pancreas. 16 The healthy liver The liver, lying on the top right of the abdomen, just under the diaphragm, is the controller of body in the sense that it has to check-and-balance all the extra, unneeded and hazardous substances that one ingests or produces in the body. Dealing with the toxic and nontoxic (but hazardous if in excess) chemicals, liver serves as a guard for the b...
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2014 for the course BIOL 1080 taught by Professor Dyck during the Winter '11 term at University of Guelph.

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