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Disease Seminar Handbook W12

When an antigen appears those few 19 specifically

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Unformatted text preview: speaks’ with the liver, because the liver has the ability to produce glucose. It does so by breaking down glycogen into glucose, and releasing this glucose in the blood. In healthy individuals, the pancreas knows exactly how much insulin and glucagon are required and at what time, depending on the glucose concentrations in the blood. It does not secrete too little or too much, which keeps blood glucose levels within a normal range. 17 What is insulin sensitivity? Insulin sensitivity refers to the ability of organs, namely skeletal muscle and liver, to respond to the insulin in the blood. In other words, in an insulin sensitive individual, when insulin binds to its receptor (i.e. when the key is inserted into the lock), it enables glucose to enter the cell (i.e. the door opens). In some disease states, despite the interaction of insulin with its receptor (i.e. the key in its lock), cells are not responsive to insulin and the glucose is unable to enter the cells (i.e. the door remains closed): this is called insulin resistance. Figure 2: Regulation of blood glucose level by insulin and glucagon. 18 INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE You have been assigned inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) for your independent research project. Although many of you may be familiar with the disease in a general sense, it is important to start with the basics of a healthy biological system before we can properly understand the onset, development, diagnosis and treatment of IBD. It is always important to understand healthy biology before we can understand a diseased state! The following information has been compiled from general health websites and reflects a basic level of detail. As well, reference to the course text has been included. Be sure to read and understand this information before beginning your research. The Non Diseased (Normal) State (a) The Healthy Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract For information on the basics of the healthy digestive system please refer to Chapter 3b (ii), The Digestive System, pages 239 255. By no means are you expected to memorize everything in the chapter, but you will likely find it to be a great resource for definitions and figures to help orient yourself when reading more complex discussions of IBD. (b) The Normal Immune Response For information on the normal immune system/response, refer to Chapter 3a(v) (pg.188 200): The Local Support & Defense System. Pay particular attention to pages 188 189. By no means are you expected to memorize everything in the chapter, but you will likely find it to be a great resource for defin...
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