Chapter 17 - Chapter 17 Treatment of Psychological...

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Chapter 17 – Treatment of Psychological Disorders The Helping Relationship - Basic goal of all treatment approaches is to help people change maladaptive, self- defeating thoughts, feelings, and behaviour patterns so that they can live happier and more productive lives - Relationship between client and the person proving help is a prime ingredient for therapeutic success - (Relationship between client + Therapist) (Therapeutic relationship + Therapy Techniques) Therapeutic outcome - Treatment may range from biomedical approaches (psychoactive drugs), to a wide range of psychological treatment - Nearly 30% of North Americans have sought psychological counseling from professionals at some point, a rise from 13% in mid-50s - Counselling and clinical psychologists typically hold Ph.D. or Psy.D degrees, have received five or more years of intensive training and supervision in a variety of psychotherapeutic techniques as well as training in research and psychological assessment of techniques - Psychiatrists are medical doctors who specialize in psychotherapy and biomedical treatments, such as drug therapy - Other professionals providing treatment typically receiving master’s degrees based on two years of highly focused and practical training o Psychiatric social works: often work in community agencies o Marriage and family counselors: specialize in problems arising from family relations o Pastoral counselors: tend to focus on spiritual issues o Abuse counselors: work with substance and sexual abusers and their victims Psychodynamic Therapies - Focuses on internal conflict and unconscious factors that underlie maladaptive behaviour - Historical roots date back to Freud’s development of psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis - Help clients achieve insight: the conscious awareness of the psychodynamics that underlie their problems o Awareness permits clients to adjust their behaviour to current life situations, rather than continuing their old maladaptive routines learned in childhood o As client repeatedly encounters and deals with buried emotions, motives, and conflicts within and outside therapy, the psychic energy that was previously devoted to keeping the unconscious conflict under control can be released and redirected toward adaptive ways of living Free Association - Free association: clients relax and report verbally, without censorship, any thoughts, feelings, or images that entered awareness o Analyst believes that the free association will lead and provide clues concerning important themes or issues of the unconscious o Analyst sits out of room Dream Interpretation - Psychoanalysts believe that dreams express impulses, fantasies, and wishes that the clients defenses keep in the unconscious during waking hours - “The royal road to the unconscious” – Freud
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- Even in dreams, defensive processes usually disguise the threatening material to protect the dreamer from the anxiety that the material might evoke - Analyst tries to help client search for the unconscious material contained in the dreams -
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