DEVIANCE ⋅ The recognized violation of cultural norms ⋅ Not conforming to the norm ⋅ Sociology looks at the structural aspects, not the psychological Problem of the Definition: Objective View : presence of certain characteristics defines deviance (very clear) ⋅ Dualism that operates (either this or this) Subjective View : no shared, observable characteristics that defines what or who is deviant ⋅ Only becomes deviant when socially defined as such Objectivists: 4 characteristics Statistical Rarity – something that’s rare (ex. Usain Bolt) Societal Harm – physical or emotional harm to individuals or harm to the larger society (ex. Drugs) Societal Reaction – if public reaction is negative, then something/someone must be deviant Normative Violation – certain behaviours that are perceived to be deviant ⋅ “Moral absolutists” – this objective characteristics will be inherent in their behaviour (universal) Subjectivists ⇒ Social Typing Process: (it’s about perception) ⋅ Description: Label gets created, and gets placed on an individual perceived to have the behaviour/characteristics ⋅ Evaluation : judgment gets applied to individual based on the label ⋅ Prescription : what you are going to do with them, it is about social control ⋅ “Moral Relativists” Deviance ⋅ Rule-making and rule breaking involves social power ⋅ Deviance varies from time to time, place to place, and group to group Functions of Deviance ⋅ Unite People: unites us vs them ⋅ Moral Holiday: blow off steam ⋅ Provide scapegoats: blame group in society ⋅ Sets moral boundaries: guidelines, can/cannot do ⋅ Mark bottom layer of society: people work hard to avoid this level ⋅ Warning sign: problems in society that inspire change ⋅ Social change: norms/values in society dictate laws THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES Functionalism ⋅ Stability and consensus are key ⋅ Deviance ⇒ eufuntion: is accommodated, positive deviance ⋅ Deviance ⇒ dysfunction: instability (fix it) Anomie – strain ⋅ A feeling of normlessness or an absence of social regulation of behaviour ⋅ Merton adds non-achievement causes anomie ⋅ Merton's differential opportunity – seeking through illegitimate means ⋅ Deviance depends on structure of society ⋅ Media tells us cultural goals (most require money) ⋅ Institutional means lead to success status (not everyone has access to these means)
⋅ Strain between out culture's emphasis on money and access of money to society leads to crime Merton's Strain Theory of Deviance – Conformity ACCEPT REJECT ACCEPT Conformity Innovation: screw the “way to do it”, use deviant means to achieve goals REJECT Ritualism: give up on reaching goals but always follows rules Retreatism: double failures ⋅ Revolutionaries: active retreatists advocating a new system Summary – Structural Functionalist 1.
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