Buildingthings transistors

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Unformatted text preview: ry-Out AND 24 A Big Adder • We can stack up many full adders to add huge numbers AB AB Full Adder Full Adder Sum AB Sum AB AB Full Adder Full Adder Full Adder Full Adder Sum … AB Sum Sum Sum How About A Memory? • Chip memories are also built from transistors • We will use an extremely simple binary logic block called an inverter 0 1 1 0 25 Something To Remember One “Bit” • Connecting two inverters together in this way makes a stable way to remember one bit of information • A bit can bea “0” or a “1” 0 1 1 0 Remembering Much More • We can write information into a memory Address Information Decoder Memory 26 Remembering Much More • We can write information into a memory • And we can read it out Address Information Decoder Memory Information Remembering Much More • 8 bits are called a _______ Information Address Decoder Memory Information 27 Remembering Much More • 8 bits are called a byte • A single modern memory chip can store 32 million bytes = 256 million bits = 32 MB Address Information Decoder Memory Information Outline • Introduction • What is inside a digital processor? • Building things – Transistors – Building simple things with them – Building bigger things • How chips are built • Building Processors • Questions about engineering, college, grad school, jobs, anything! 28 How Large Are Transistors? • If a human hair were this large… A modern transistor would be narrower than this line The First Transistor • Fabricated at Bell Labs on December 16, 1947. The inventors won the Nobel prize in physics in 1956 for the invention. 29 The First Integrated Circuit • This is the first IC made by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments. It was built in 1958. An Early “Planar” IC • This is an early planar IC from Fairchild. 30 Silicon • Silicon is the second most common element in the Earth’s crust. • Semiconductor‐grade Si is 99.999999 % pure. • Ingots like this one weigh several hundred pounds and cost $16,000 • The ingot will be sliced into very thin wafers. A Silicon Wafer • This 8‐inch wafer contains about 200 Pentium II chips (1997). • Each chip contains more than 20 million transistors. • More than 1 billion microprocessors are made each year. 31 A State-of-the-art Wafer • 300 mm diameter wafer Source: IBM One Transistor • A cross‐section view of a single transistor 32 Chip Processing Steps • Now, we’ll look at a few of the steps used in building...
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This note was uploaded on 01/29/2014 for the course MAT 1 taught by Professor Higgins during the Fall '13 term at UC Davis.

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