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Unformatted text preview: ry-Out AND 24 A Big Adder
• We can stack up many full adders to add huge numbers
AB AB Full
Adder Sum AB Sum AB AB Full
Adder Sum … AB Sum Sum Sum How About A Memory?
• Chip memories are also built from transistors
• We will use an extremely simple binary logic block called an inverter 0 1 1 0 25 Something To Remember
• Connecting two inverters together in this way makes a stable way to remember one bit of information
• A bit can bea “0” or a “1” 0 1 1 0 Remembering Much More
• We can write information into a memory Address Information Decoder Memory 26 Remembering Much More
• We can write information into a memory
• And we can read it out Address Information Decoder Memory Information Remembering Much More
• 8 bits are called a _______
Information Address Decoder Memory Information 27 Remembering Much More
• 8 bits are called a byte
• A single modern memory chip can store 32 million bytes = 256 million bits
= 32 MB
Address Information Decoder Memory Information Outline
• What is inside a digital processor?
• Building things
– Building simple things with them
– Building bigger things • How chips are built
• Building Processors
• Questions about engineering, college, grad school, jobs, anything! 28 How Large Are Transistors?
• If a human hair were this large… A modern transistor would be narrower
than this line The First Transistor
• Fabricated at Bell Labs on December 16, 1947. The inventors won the Nobel prize in physics in 1956 for the invention. 29 The First Integrated Circuit
• This is the first IC made by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments. It was built in 1958. An Early “Planar” IC
• This is an early planar IC from Fairchild. 30 Silicon
• Silicon is the second most common element in the Earth’s crust.
• Semiconductor‐grade Si is 99.999999 % pure.
• Ingots like this one weigh several hundred pounds and cost $16,000
• The ingot will be sliced into very thin wafers. A Silicon Wafer
• This 8‐inch wafer contains about 200 Pentium II chips (1997).
• Each chip contains more than 20 million transistors.
• More than 1 billion microprocessors are made each year. 31 A State-of-the-art Wafer
• 300 mm diameter wafer Source: IBM One Transistor
• A cross‐section view of a single transistor 32 Chip Processing Steps
• Now, we’ll look at a few of the steps used in building...
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This note was uploaded on 01/29/2014 for the course MAT 1 taught by Professor Higgins during the Fall '13 term at UC Davis.
- Fall '13