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exam 2 - Exam III Study Guide Exam Breakdown 50 questions...

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Exam III Study Guide Exam Breakdown : 50 questions : Multiple Choice (Possibly some True/False and/or Matching) ~33% Chapter 7: Memory ~33% Chapter 8: Language & Thought ~33% Chapter 10: Motivation & Emotion You are responsible for ALL material from lectures and noted material from the text. Chapter 7: Memory Encoding o Levels of Encoding Structural Phonemic Semantic o Rehearsal Types Maintenance Rehearsal Elaborative Rehearsal o Other Strategies Visual Imagery Self-Reference Encoding Atkinson & Shiffrin’s 3-Stage Model o Sensory Memory o Short-Term (STM)/Working Memory (WM) Differences between STM & WM Capacity of STM/WM Chunking Strategy Baddely’s Model of WM Phonological Loop Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad Episodic Buffer Central Executive o Long-Term Memory Capacity Types of LTM Declarative o Episodic o Semantic Procedural Prospective Retrieval Retrieval Cues Encoding Specificity Principle 1
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o Context-Dependent Memory o State-Dependent Memory o Mood-Congruent Recall Memory as a Reconstructive Process Forgetting Ebbinghaus’ forgetting studies/findings Reasons we forget o Ineffective Encoding o Decay o Interference Retroactive Interference Proactive Interference o Retrieval Failure o Amnesia Retrograde Amnesia Anterograde Amnesia False Memories Misinformation Effect o Eyewitness Testimony Accident Witness Study (Loftus & Palmer, 1974) Source-Monitoring Error Implanting False Memories (Loftus) Chapter 8: Language & Thinking Language o Adaptive Value of Mental Representations and Language for Humans o Properties of Language Symbolic Generative Structured o Structure of Language Phonemes Morphemes o Language Development Developmental Milestones (Note that this includes several slides of notes regarding the typical timelines of recognizing phonemes, babbling, producing words, combining words, and refining language skills) o Common Language Errors for Toddlers Overextension Underextension o Common Language Error for Young Children: Overregulation 2
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o Metalinguistic Awareness Literal vs. Implied meanings Irony Sarcasm o Bilingualism Factors that affect learning a 2 nd language Bilingualism & Cognitive Ability Impact on vocabulary development Better performance in several cognitive areas: o Cognitive Flexibility o Reasoning o Metalinguistic Awareness o Selective Attention Reasoning o Reasons to Reason Guides efforts Avoids trail and error Better outcomes o Types of Reasoning Deductive “top-down” general principles conclusion about a specific case begins with a set of premises (factual statements) determine how those premises apply to the specific case premise: “if X then Y” infer Y if X occurs if all chuwahwas are dogs. If Maria is a chuwowa then Maria is a dog.
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