16_energy

1 238 377 756 780 990 amount 100 109 tons qbtu 2099

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Unformatted text preview: 7 Energy Sources and Destinations Source Amount QBtu Percent 1018 Joules Joules Coal 1.00 109 tons 10 tons 20.99 22.3% 22.1 Natural Gas 21.9 1012 ft3 1 0 ft 22.59 24.1% 23.8 Petroleum 6.14 109 bbl 1 0 bbl 35.72 38.1% 37.7 Nuclear 681 109 kWh 10 kWh 7.17 7.6% 7.56 Renewables 695 109 kWh 10 kWh 7.39 7.9% 7.80 93.81 100.0% 99.0 Total 1 Btu = 1055 J Winter 2007 Lecture 16 10 1 kJ; 1 QBtu = 1015 Btu 1018 J 25% of world total! 11 Winter 2007 12 3 Energy, Sustainability 03/15/2007 U.S. Consumption vs. ProductionUCSD: Physics 121; 2007 UCSD: Physics 121; 2007 Where is our energy used, and of what flavor? policy change policy change Winter 2007 13 Winter 2007 14 UCSD: Physics 121; 2007 UCSD: Physics 121; 2007 Lessons A brief history of fossil fuels • Our energy production is completely dominated by fossil fuels, with only about 15% coming from nuclear and hydroelectric – hydroelectric is the only truly renewable resource of the two • Part of our enormous appetite is due to the expanse of our country: transportation is important • Space heating is also an issue in a country where detached houses are the rule • Any industrial society (at our current scale) is going to have a large demand for energy • Here today, gone tomorrow – we found the earth’s battery, and we instantly hooked up Las Vegas to expend the battery as quickly as possible • What will our future hold? – Will it be back to a simple life? – Or will we find new ways to produce all the energy we want? – Or will it be somewhere in the middle Winter 2007 Lecture 16 15 Winter 2007 16 4 Energy, Sustainability 03/15/2007 UCSD: Physics 121; 2007 Who’s got the crude oil resources? UCSD: Physics 121; 2007 How long will the world oil supply last? • Not as long as you might think/hope • We’ll be spent before the century is done, but we’ll have to We’ we’ scale down oil usage before then (in the next few decades) Winter 2007 17 Winter 2007 18 UCSD: Physics 121; 2007 UCSD: Physics 121; 2007 How about the U.S. Supply? Oil in the World • The estimated total U.S. supply is 284 billion barrels • We’ve used 60% of this, We’ leaving 113 billion barrels • Production is already down to 70% of peak • At current rate of production, will be exhausted in 2050 • If we used only U.S. supply, we’d run out in 19 years!! we’ • Total reserves: 689.5 billion barrels from this table • Current production: 38 million barrels/day • Extrapolated timescale to depletion: 18,000 days = 49 years Winter 2007 Lecture 16 19 Winter 2007 20 5 Energy, Sustainability 03/15/2007 UCSD: Physics 121; 2007 UCSD: Physics 121; 2007 Various Estimates of Oil Remaining Discouragement of Oil Usage • To date, we’ve used about 900 billion barrels of oil we’ worldwide • The total resource, denoted as Q , could be: could • In this country, there is no such thing • U.S. taxes on gasoline are 6.5 times lower than in most industrialized countries (about 32 cents per gallon in the U.S.) – 1350 billion barrels (1969 worst-case estimate) – 2100 billion barrels (1969 best-case estimate) – 2500 billion barrels (1993 optimistic estimate) – but we pay additional costs in wars, subsidies • The Frito Lay attitude: Burn all you want—we’ll pump want—we’ more • Efforts on the part of the U.S. to keep oil prices low have lead to numerous questionable actions on the international scene Winter 2007 21 Winter 2007 UCSD: Physics 121; 2007 22 UCSD: Physics 121; 2007 Natural Gas Distribution of natural gas • Impractical to ship: must route by pipe • 1.3 million miles of pipe (250,000...
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