Lecture 21 - pile of bison skulls in 1870s Lecture 21...

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Lecture’21’ Habitat’Loss’&’Overexploita6on’ pile’of’bison’skulls’ in’1870±s’
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A"er this class you should be able to explain: What two factors associated with habitat fragmenta3on aFect species loss? Why? Current limita3ons associated with preserving biodiversity using protected areas such as na3onal parks alone Solu3ons to habitat fragmenta3on What factors make it easy to overexploit a renewable resource such popula3ons of a species, 3mber, or ±sh stocks? The concept of the Walking Dead. Why do some species not recover a²er all hun3ng is banned? Give examples of ecological 3pping points. Why do these occur? Alterna3ve stable states: What makes reversing collapsed ecosystems so difficult to restore in some cases? What can be done to prevent overexploita3on of renewable resources?
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UN’Environment’ Programme’(UNEP)’ hHp://maps.grida.no/go/collec6on/global-environment-outlook-4-geo-4’ The’world±s’agricultural’land’occupies’nearly’all’arable’land’on’Earth’
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Hoekstra’et’al.’2005.’Ecology’Lehers’8:’23-29’ Areas’of’most’intensive’±uman’use’also’±arbor’ t±e’world²s’most’t±reatened’ ecoregions’and’ biomes.’
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Habitat’loss’and’ habitat’ fragmenta6on’is’ one’of’the’leading’ causes’of’the’ ongoing’ex6nc6on’ of’species’
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Species’number’depends’on’the’ area of habitat ,’and’on’ connectedness of habitat patches’ Why?’ Why?’
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Species’number’depends’on’the’ area of habitat ,’and’on’ connectedness of habitat patches’ When’species’go’locally’ex6nct’in’a’very’ isolated’habitat’patch,’ recoloniza6on’from’a’ diFerent,’distant’patch’gets’increasingly’ unlikely,’causing’progressive’loss’of’species’ from’the’patch’ The’smaller’the’area’of’the’patch,’ the’smaller’the’popula6ons’it’can’ sustain,’making’it’more’likely’for’a’ species’to’go’locally’ex6nct’
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To’date,’only’few’of’the’Biodiversity’Hotspot’regions’are’protected.’Most’ protected’areas’are’small,’and’isolated’patches.’
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America's’na6onal’parks’are’at’risk’of’disappearing’or’being’fundamentally’changed’as’seas’rise,’ glaciers’melt,’trees’die’and’changes’in’the’ranges’of’animals’and’plants’as’a’result’of’climate’ change.’ hHp://www.mcclatchydc.com/2009/10/01/7±403/report-climate-change-threatens.html#ixzz1frdafAt0
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Combating Habitat Fragmentation Today’human-induced’habitat’loss’and’
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