7.1: Anatomy of the Integumentary System: Essential Human Anatomy and Physiology I with Lab- Kassner

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BIOD 151Pages7.1: Anatomy of the Integumentary System!7.1: Anatomy of the Integumentary SystemNo!ce:To op!mize your learning in this course, we advise that you complete the labs and modules as indicated in the BIOD 151 Lab Schedule.Introduc!on to the Integumentary SystemThe integumentary systemis comprised of theskin, hair, and nails.Skinis the largest organ of the body. It is made up of theepidermis(outerlayer),dermis(middle layer), and thehypodermis(inner, also calledsubcutaneous!ssue layer). SeeFigure 7.1below to see the three layers of the skin.Skin cells absorb ultraviolet radia!on to produce vitamin D, which is used to promote bone development. The integumentary system contains thesensory receptors and glands used for protec!on of the skin and underlying!ssues. The integumentary system plays an important role in protec!nginternal organs from extreme temperature changes as well as pathogenic (disease-causing) microorganisms. If the integumentary system is damagedand microbes or foreign objects make their way into the body, it is thelympha!c systemthat is responsible for moun!ng the a"ack to defend the body’sinternal environment.Figure 7.1 The three layers of the skin: epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis.Figure 7.1 The three layers of the skin: epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis. The epidermis is adhered to the basement membrane (highlighted inblue).Sensory OrgansThe skin contains several types of sense organs, each one specialized to detect a certain type of sensory input(Figure 7.2).Merkel’s cellsandMeissner's corpusclesaremechanoreceptorsthat detect mechanical sensory informa!on in the form of light touch and vibra!on.Nociceptorsdetectpain, such as from a pin prick.Pacinian corpusclesdetect the mechanical sensory informa!on of pressure applied to the skin.Thermoreceptorsdetecthot and cold. Sensory organs embedded in the skin are designed to detect sensory informa!on and then to relay that informa!on to the brain. Thebrain then interprets the informa!on to determine an appropriate response.Figure 7.2 Sensory organs embedded within the layers of the skinFigure 7.2 Sensory organs embedded within the layers of the skinGlandsRecallendocrine glandssecretehormones,which are secreted in the bloodstream for body-wide distribu!on.Exocrine glandscontain secre!onsreleased through aduct(opening) into an epithelial surface or lining. Exocrine gland secre!ons can also release their contents onto the surface of theskin. Other types of exocrine glands release their contents into an epithelial surface. (Recall, for example, that salivary amylase is released into themouth.)
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