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Discussion Questions 10-14-13

Briefly explain your answer 3 treatment of dividing

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Unformatted text preview: bout regulation of Cdk (Cyclin ­dependent kinase), what protein might be expressed at high levels during the early embryonic cell cycles? Briefly explain your answer. 3) Treatment of dividing cells with cytochalasin (a fungal metablite that prevents actin polymerization) causes cytokinesis failure. If a normal diploid human cell fails cytokinesis, the two daughter cells never separate from each other, and the resulting cell is referred to as a tetraploid cell. If the tetraploid cell progresses through the next S ­phase and enters mitosis, how many kinetochores would you expect to find? (Note that a haploid human cell contains 23 chromosomes.) Centrosome duplication occurs in S ­phase of the cell cycle. How many centrosomes would the tetraploid cell have when it enters mitosis? What defects would you expect in the mitotic spindle that forms when these tetraploid cells go through mitosis? Note that there is experimental evidence that this scenario may lead to cancer: Fujiwara T, Bandi M, Nitta M, Ivanova EV, Bronson RT, Pellman D. Cytokinesis failure generating tetraploids promotes tumorigenesis in p53 ­null cells. Nature. 2005 Oct 13; 437(7061):1043 ­7....
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