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2 learning growth

Belief that biological dierences between individuals

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Unformatted text preview: brief history of the Blank Slate Id, Ego, Superego ID Unconscious urges; Biological needs: FOOD, SEX, AGRESSION etc. The Pleasure Principle SUPEREGO InternalizaFon of constraints from REALITY (e.g., parents) Conscience EGO Arbiter of ID & SuperEgo A4empts to guide behavior RaFonalizes behaviors driven by ID The Reality Principle Id, Ego, Superego •  Human nature is designed to support survival •  Individual needs are at odds with needs of group •  The EGO adjudicates between these conflicFng forces via suppression and control of urges, internalizaFon of cultural norms, etc. •  These conflicts result in mental illness (less prevalent in “savages”) Freud •  Human behavior is strongly driven by innate urges, but also shaped & constrained by parents, culture •  Moral intuiFons are imposed on us, not innate Meanwhile, behaviorism… •  Concurrent development of experimental psychology in Germany & the US •  Study only directly observable enFFes: sFmuli and behaviors – no mental phenomena •  Strong emphasis on plasFcity of human behavior – blank slate BF Skinner Response to Eugenics Belief that biological differences between individuals and groups explain differences in life outcomes, traits, etc. Belief that human race can be improved by selecFng for traits in populaFon, by controlling reproducFon Championed by Galton, the polymath cousin of Charles Darwin, and by Hitler Behaviorism was, in part, a response Francis Galton (cousin of Darwin) Adolf Hitler Founders of behaviorism •  James B. Watson (Li4le Albert) •  Pavlov (Classical CondiFoning) •  BF Skinner (Operant CondiFoning) James B. Watson “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well- formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of spet I might select – doctor, lawyer, arFst, merchant- chief and, yes, even beggar- man and thief, regardless of his talents,...
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