4 Walking

Are infants learning if so what form does learning

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Unformatted text preview: become capable of self- locomo=on for the first =me as they begin to crawl Locomo=on •  Infants begin walking independently at around 13 to 14 months of age, using a toddling gait Questions about walking Why does it take a year to develop? Are infants ‘learning’? If so what form does learning take? Clues 1.  The stepping reflex: Present at birth, disappears at 2- months of age 2. The kicking reflex: Remains aUer 2- months Biggest, chubbiest clue Competence vs. Performance Idea: Children (and adults) have knowledge & abilities that are sometimes masked by extraneous factors e.g., alcohol & knowledge of math fatigue and capacity to speak English being under water & ability to sing Fat & Stepping! Competence vs. Performance Hypothesis: stepping does not actually disappear, but is a form of kicking expressed in upright, supported position Babies retain this competence (innate motor program), but cannot express it because they are too chubby. Upright stepping behavior disappears when infants gain weight and the leg muscles lack strength to control motion See Spelke & Newport, 1998; Thelen et al., 1984 Evidence: Three Results Reveal Competence / Performance Dis=nc=on Water babies Thelen et al. (1984): RESULT 1: Put 2- month- old babies upright into a fish tank full of...
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