Unformatted text preview: is crucial. EFs remain critical for
ments in 4- and 6-year-olds on only two of the activity (22, 23)
success throughout life [in career (4) and maroften exercising bimanual coordination
three inhibition games practiced, with no trans- indicates that react impulsively without top-down confers to unpracticed tasks (12). Perhaps the chil- may improve EFs. So far evidence shows no EF one’s feelings
trol. Thus, training in verbalizing
University of British Columbia and Children’s Hospital,
dren were too young, training too brief, or training benefits from resistance training (26, 27). There
Vancouver, BC V6T 2A1, Canada.
and practicing conscious self-control strategies
are not yet studies of the benefits of sports for EFs
tasks not optimal.
*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail:
knowledge. Sports might benefit EFs more
After training with computer games that taxed to our(e.g., waiting before acting and self-talk) are emFig. 1. A teen working at a CogMed game. [Photo courtesy of CogMed]
working memory and/or inhibitory control (grad- than aerobic exercise alone because, besides imphasized. When children get upset, they should
ually increasing in difficulty) or that required proving fitness, sports challenge EFs (requiring
stop, take a deep breath, say what the problem is
www.sciencemag.org SCIENCE VOL 333 19 AUGUST 2011
visuomotor control, 4- and 6-year-olds showed sustained attention, working memory, and disand how they feel, and and social
no cognitive benefits save one (15)—improved ciplined action) and bring joy, pride, construct an action plan.
matrices score (reasoning) on the Kaufman Brief bonding [it is known taught techniques to generalize skills
Teachers are that sadness, stress, and
Intelligence Test (K-Bit)—nor did their parents loneliness impair EFs (see final paragraph)].
learned during PATHS lessons to other contexts
Martial arts and mindfulness practices. Tradireport better EFs. However, more mature brainduring emphasize self-control, discipline
electrical responses during a selective-attention tional martial artsthe school day. After a year of PATHS,
task were found after training (perhaps presaging (inhibitory control), and character development. inhibitory con7- to 9-year-olds showed better
Children getting traditional tae-kwon-do trainlater cognitive advances).
trol and cognitive flexibility than control children
Hybrid of computer and noncomputer games. ing (Fig. 2) were found to show greater gains
(43). Children who showed greater
When children of 7 to 9 years were randomly than children in standard physical education on inhibitory cona...
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