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criminal convictions) ((D)) than those with high self-control.
criminal convictions D than those with high self-control.
criminal convictions (D than those with high self-control. Another demonstra%on: Delay of Gra%ﬁca%on Delay of Gra%ﬁca%on h"p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G7LN96jEXHc Predic%ng later outcomes Average SAT score 700 Verbal Quan%ta%ve 600 500 400 300 Lowest third Highest third Marshmallow task +me Shoda, Mischel, & Peake (1990) Follow- Up Study • Why do some kids delay, and how? • Hypothesis 1: Ability to self- distract / suppress thoughts Follow- up Study • 52 Stanford preschoolers • Rewards covered or not covered • Provided with diﬀerent strategies: – Fun thoughts – Thoughts about the rewards for wai%ng – No thoughts suggested • Lev alone for 15 minutes… Delay of gra%ﬁca%on Fun thoughts Reward thoughts i
exposed No thoughts Rewards
covered C-- - Rewards Objects on which th Mischel et al. (1989) Fig. 1. (Left) Average delay time shown by 52 Stanford Another Follow- Up • Hypothesis 2: Children delay if they expect reward to come • Children from low- SES, single- parent homes have lower EF, less predictable lives • Children may delay more for more predictable experimenter Unpredictable World Hypothesis Manipulated reliability of environment: Reliable vs. Unreliable experimenter h"p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JsQMdECFnUQ Results # waited full 15 minutes Mean wait %mes Control • Execu%ve control is determined by: – Resources available to suppress unwanted thoughts – Beliefs about world, and cost- beneﬁt analysis of controlling behavior Changing EF Predictors: 1. LOW SES children 2. Single parent environments QUESTION: Should we intervene on these variables? If yes, Why? If not, Why not? Another Approach Tools of the Mind A set of external, symbolic tools that support the development of execu%ve func%on capaci%es, like control, suppression of urges, & behavior planning Woven into ~80% of classroom ac%vi%es Diamond et al., 2007 Tools of the Mind External props (ear to listen) Tools of the Mind Monitor & Regulate behaviors of peers (e.g., check coun%ng) Tools of the Mind • Pretend play (planned dramas) • Self- Speech to regulate self (e.g., when learning new tasks) • Planning future ac%vi%es in art, wri%ng. Evalua%ng Tools of the Mind % correct responses 100 80 60 Control 40...
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