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Low ses children 2 single parent environments question

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Unformatted text preview: h problems B), more single-parent child rearing C ), more criminal convictions) ((D)) than those with high self-control. criminal convictions D than those with high self-control. criminal convictions (D than those with high self-control. Another demonstra%on: Delay of Gra%fica%on Delay of Gra%fica%on h"p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G7LN96jEXHc Predic%ng later outcomes Average SAT score 700 Verbal Quan%ta%ve 600 500 400 300 Lowest third Highest third Marshmallow task +me Shoda, Mischel, & Peake (1990) Follow- Up Study •  Why do some kids delay, and how? •  Hypothesis 1: Ability to self- distract / suppress thoughts Follow- up Study •  52 Stanford preschoolers •  Rewards covered or not covered •  Provided with different strategies: –  Fun thoughts –  Thoughts about the rewards for wai%ng –  No thoughts suggested •  Lev alone for 15 minutes… Delay of gra%fica%on Fun thoughts Reward thoughts i Rewards exposed No thoughts Rewards covered C-- - Rewards Objects on which th Mischel et al. (1989) Fig. 1. (Left) Average delay time shown by 52 Stanford Another Follow- Up •  Hypothesis 2: Children delay if they expect reward to come •  Children from low- SES, single- parent homes have lower EF, less predictable lives •  Children may delay more for more predictable experimenter Unpredictable World Hypothesis Manipulated reliability of environment: Reliable vs. Unreliable experimenter h"p://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JsQMdECFnUQ Results # waited full 15 minutes Mean wait %mes Control •  Execu%ve control is determined by: –  Resources available to suppress unwanted thoughts –  Beliefs about world, and cost- benefit analysis of controlling behavior Changing EF Predictors: 1.  LOW SES children 2.  Single parent environments QUESTION: Should we intervene on these variables? If yes, Why? If not, Why not? Another Approach Tools of the Mind A set of external, symbolic tools that support the development of execu%ve func%on capaci%es, like control, suppression of urges, & behavior planning Woven into ~80% of classroom ac%vi%es Diamond et al., 2007 Tools of the Mind External props (ear to listen) Tools of the Mind Monitor & Regulate behaviors of peers (e.g., check coun%ng) Tools of the Mind •  Pretend play (planned dramas) •  Self- Speech to regulate self (e.g., when learning new tasks) •  Planning future ac%vi%es in art, wri%ng. Evalua%ng Tools of the Mind % correct responses 100 80 60 Control 40...
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