Unformatted text preview: d instruction (38–40).
and this transfers to other working-memory tasks.
effective as also addressing emotional and social development (as do curricula that improve
executive functions) and physical development (shown by positive effects of aerobics, martial arts, Groups studied have been typically developing
Children chosen by lottery to enter a Montessori
children (12) and those with attention deficit hyand yoga).
public school approved by the Association
peractivity disorder (ADHD) (10, 13) or poor
Montessori Internationale (AMI) were compared
hat will children need to be success- riage (5)] and for positive mental and physical working-memory spans (9). Benefits usually do
not generalize to unpracticed EF skills (14). Three
ful? What programs are successfully health (6, 7).
to those also in the lottery but not
not evident immediately but were evident 6 significantly more so than did standard physical chosen, at the
Children with worse self-control (less persist- studies (9–11) included controls who played the
helping children develop those skills
education, yet did not affect non-EF skillsand the end of grade 6
months later (9).
end of kindergarten (age 5) (19).
in the earliest school years? What do those pro- ence, more impulsivity, and poorer attention same training games without increasing difficulDavis et al. (20) randomly assigned sedenIn a double-blind, randomized-control trial
regulation) at ages 3 to 11 tend to have worse ty; those controls did not show the same gains.
grams have in common?
(age 12) (41). At age 5, Montessori children
with multiple training and transfer tasks, one tary, overweight 7- to 11-year-olds to no treatFour of the qualities that will probably be key health, earn less, and commit more crimes 30 years Two studies looked 6 months later and found EF
20 min/day or 40 min/day than aerobic
group of 4-year-olds was trained on working ment, showed better EFs of group peers attending other
to success are creativity, flexibility, self-control, later than those with better self-control as children, benefits remained (9, 13). For math, gains were
and discipline. Children will need to think crememory (using CogMed), one on nonverbal rea- games (running games, jump rope, basketball, in reading and
schools. They performed better
atively to devise solutions never considered besoning, another on both, and a control group on and soccer), with an emphasis on enjoyment and
math and showed more concern for fairness and
fore. They will need working memory to mentally
both but remaining at the easiest level. Those intensity, not competition or skill enhancement.
work with masses of data and see new conjustice. No group difference on
trained on working memory improved more on Only the high-dose aerobics group improvedwas found in delay
nections among elements, flexibility to appreciworking-memory transfer tasks than did controls, EFs (only on the most EF-demanding measure) only measure
of gratification. At age 12, on the
ate different perspectives and take advantage of
and those trained in reasonin...
View Full Document