Unformatted text preview: g improved more on and math, compared with no-treatment controls.
serendipity, and self-control to resist temptations
related benefits ofMontessori children showed more
to EFs, aerobic exercise were
reasoning transfer tasks than controls (11). Nei- Dose-response
and avoid doing something they would regret.
for the most difficult EF task and than controls. They also
ther group showed transfer to the unpracticed foundcreativity in essay writing for math.
Tomorrow’s leaders will need the discipline to
skill (reasoning for the former, working memory Neither aerobicsfeeling improved more thanof community at
stay focused, seeing tasks through to completion.
reported group more of a sense
for the later). The combined group showed less controls on the EF skill of selective attention
All of those qualities are executive functions
(EFs), the cognitive control functions needed when
improvement on both (having received less prac- or on non-EF skills.
you have to concentrate and think, when acting
When Add-Ons to Classroom Curricula (32). Two
7- to 9-year-olds were randomly astice on each). Transfers were narrow. Nonverbal
on your initial impulse might be ill-advised.
analogical-reasoning training transferred to non- signed to 2 hours ofwith different philosophies, both inprograms fitness training daily for the
EFs depend on a neural circuit in which the preverbal analogical reasoning on Raven’s Matrices school year (aerobic activities for 70 min, then
tended to complement existing curricula, improve
frontal cortex is central. Core EFs are cognitive
but not to nonverbal gestalt completion on Raven’s. motor skill development) or no treatment, those
flexibility, inhibition (self-control, self-regulation),
EFs ( fitness training (42) (Promoting Alternative
Nonverbal working-memory training transferred to who received 32). PATHSshowed more imand working memory (1). More complex EFs
other measures of nonverbal working memory but provement in working memory than did controls,
Thinking Strategies) trains teachers to build chilinclude problem-solving, reasoning, and plannot to the one measure of verbal working memory. which was especially evident when workingning. EFs are more important for school readdren’s competencies(21).self-control, recognizing
Efforts to use computer games to train in- memory demands were greater
iness than is intelligence quotient (IQ) (2). They
and managing differ significantly behibition have experienced limited success. Using working memory did notfeelings, and interpersonal problemcontinue to predict math and reading competence
throughout all school years [e.g., (3)]. Clearly, to
the two groups at either pre- or experience and react to
the same dosage, duration, and frequency as tweensolving. Young childrenposttest.
improve school readiness and academic success,
Suggestive evidence from studies of physical
CogMed studies, Thorell et al. found improveemotionsand music they can ,verbalize them and
before training (24 25)
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