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Unformatted text preview: Tools 20 0 Flanker Rev- Flanker Diamond et al., 2007 Conclusion •  School programs that focus on scaffolding EF result in higher EF •  QUESTION: Is this a technique that will work in the larger school se{ng (e.g., in large classes) •  What is the equivalent for older kids? Improving self- control outside the classroom W 1 Some computer games may show benefits as well Concentra%on exercises can Sports and mar%al arts are help strengthen self- control beneficial for execu%ve func%on www.sciencemag.org SCIENCE VOL 333 19 AUGUST 2011 961 improves prefrontal cortex function and EFs (17, 18). Although most studies have involved adults and/or examined effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise, which may be transient, this conclusion has support in three studies of sustained exercise in children. Aerobic running (with exercises becoming more demanding over time) improved 8- to 12year-olds’ cognitive flexibility and creativity, and 960 study where children 5 to 11 years old were randomly assigned by homeroom class to tae-kwon-do (with challenge incrementing) or standard physical education. Besides including physical exercise, martial-arts sessions began with three questions emphasizing self-monitoring and planning: Where am I (i.e., focus on the present moment)? What am I doing? What should I be doing? The later two questions directed children to select specific 19 AUGUST 2011 VOL 333 SCIENCE children and/or those behind on EFs, children in this study were socioeconomically advantaged, making the findings especially impressive. Instructive findings are also reported in a study with adolescent juvenile delinquents (29). One group was assigned to traditional tae-kwon-do (emphasizing qualities such as respect, humility, responsibility, perseverance, and honor, as well as physical conditioning and focusing on self-control www.sciencemag.org Diamond (2011) Downloaded from www.sciencemag.org on November 29, 2012 Interventions Shown to Aid Executive Function Development in Children 4 to 12 Years Old Downloaded from www.sciencemag.org on November 29, 2012 indfulness training sessions rts: sitting meditation; activnsory awareness, attention eness of others or the eny scan. Demands on minder time as the first and third the more goal-directed and le portion became briefer. arts 1 and 3 involved topntion [bringing attention to noticing when attention had g), and bringing it back nonntended target]. After mindter EF improvements were r-olds with initially poorer nitially better EFs compared silently read instead) (30). y poor EFs showed EF imand in the components of ing, bringing their scores up chers and parents reported , suggesting that they genxts. uggestion that yoga might and 13 years old were ranga or physical training (31). cal training, relaxation, and proved EFs, with improvet when EF demands were ning (physical activi...
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