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14 social categorization

14 social categorization - Social categoriza-on What do you...

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Social’categoriza-on’
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What’do’you’see?’
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Human’agents’are’perceived’as’members’of’ groups’ Gender Religion Occupa0on Race WHY?’What’is’the’origin’of’these’ categories?’ Do’these’categories’reflect’reality?’ Or’are’they’psychological’crea-ons,’ &’simpliFca-ons’of’reality?’ If’they’are’psychological,’what’ purpose’do’they’serve,’if’any?’
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How’we’categorize’people’afects’how’we’ interact’with’them’ 112’managers’given’4’resumes’with’photos’aIached’oF’male’vs.’ Female’and’aIrac-ve’vs.’unaIrac-ve’Faces:’ ’ ’ ’ 1.’Judge’that’males’signi±cantly’more’suitable’For’hire’than’Females’ ’ 2.’Judge’that’aIrac-ve’individuals’more’suitable’For’hire’ ’ 3.’Predict’that’aIrac-ve’males’more’likely’to’get’promoted’later’in’ career’ ’ 4.’More’experienced’managers’were’less’likely’to’discriminate’ But’these’are’the’same’resumes!’ Marlowe’et’al.,’1996’
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Less’pay’for’women,’especially’in’mid’to’late’ career’ Women±s’earnings’increased’ from’61’to’76.5%’of’men±s’ Plateau’in’the’90±s’ Change’driven’mainly’by’ younger’workers’ Blau & Kahn (2000). Journal of Economic Perspec;ves-Volume 14, Number 4-Fall 2000-Pages 75-99 e.g.,’70k’=’$53,200’in’female’dollars’ ’ $100k’=’$69k’later’in’career’
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In’academia,’diference’in’pay’is’predicted’by’ smaller’chance’oF’promo-on’ Women’are’less’likely’to’be’promoted’when’controlling’For’ other’Factors’like’produc-vity’ At’Harvard,’when’Lawrence’Summers’was’president,’women’got’ tenure’as’Follows:’ 2002:’9/35’ 2003:’6/32’ ’ 2004:’4/32’ (in’2000,’beFore’he’arrived,’it’was’14/41’and’in’2001’13/36)’
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Are’these’judgments’grounded’in’reality?’ ’ Summers:’biological’diferences’between’men’and’women’may’partly’ explain’gender’diferences’in’tenure’in’math’&’sciences’ ’ “There’are’three’broad’hypotheses’about’the’sources’oF’the’very’ substan-al’dispari-es’that’this’conFerence's’papers’document’and’have’ been’documented’beFore’with’respect’to’the’presence’oF’women’in’high± end’scien-²c’proFessions….’the’²rst’is’what’I’call’the’high±powered’job’ hypothesis.’The’second’is’what’I’would’call’diferent’availability’oF’ ap-tude’at’the’high’end,’and’the’third’is’what’I’would’call’diferent’ socializa-on’and’pa³erns’oF’discrimina-on’in’a’search.’And’in’my’own’ view,’their’importance’probably’ranks’in’exactly’the’order’that’I’just’ described.”’ h³p://www.president.harvard.edu/speeches/summers_2005/nber.php’
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