11 Non-linguistic symbols

# 0 accuracy across array types 06 02 04 abacus

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Unformatted text preview: amp; \$%& \$%& \$%& \$%& \$ ! " # \$ ! ':'! " # \$ ! ':': " # \$ ! ':'# " # \$ ! ':'; " # \$ ! ':'9 " # \$ ! ':!! " # ':!# ' ' ' ' ' ' ' \$%& \$%& \$%& \$%& \$%& \$%& \$%& \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ ! " # ! ':!; " # ! ':!8 " # ! '::\$ " # ! '::! " # ! '::: " # \$ ! '::& " # '::; ' ' ' ' ' ' ' \$%& \$%& \$%& \$%& \$%& \$%& \$%& \$ ! " # \$ ! '::9 " # \$ ! " # \$ ':"' ' ' \$%& \$%& \$ ! " # \$ ! " # (plots number of columns in the solution) ! " # \$ ! " # \$ ! " # \$ ! " # Most kids can do addi,on for 3- 4 columns Another Task: Flashcards Task –  Read abacus OR –  Es)mate number of beads Demo: Addi,on Paradigm Abacus ﬂashcards / Stroop cards Ji]er cards Rotated cards Dot cards Es)ma)on cards 1.0 Accuracy across array types 0.6 0.2 0.4 Abacus flashcard reading (accurate!) Random dots estimation (inaccurate!) 0.0 proportion correct 0.8 abacus flashcards stroop cards rotated cards dot cards jitter cards estimation cards 0 5 10 15 number of dots 20 25 Summary •  Easier to es)mate arrays that look like an actual abacus •  Suggests that abacus organizes beads in a way that is op)mal for the visual system •  ALSO: untrained adults show same basic pa]ern Each column is a separate “object” Children chunk the abacus into 3- 5 separate objects (columns) and es)mate the number of items on each Error is low on each column, because only 4- 5 objects Thus, abacus exact for numbers up to ~4 digits Ques)on 2 Does mental abacus rely on language, or are they purely visual symbols? Calcula,on without language Calcula,on without language Motor Inference Abacus interference: group data oooo oooo oooo o oooo ooo oooo o o oooo ooo o oo o o o o o o oo o o ooo o o 0.8 1.0 Abacus Users o o o ooo o oooo o o o o o o oooo oooo o o o ooo o o o o o o o 0.6 o oo oo oo oo ooo o oo o o o o oo o oo o o o o o oo o oo o oo oo o o oo o oo o oo o o o o o oo o ooo oo oo o o oo o o o o 0.4 oo oo o o o oooo o oo o o o o o oo o o o o oooo o o o ooo o o o o o o o oo oo o o 0.2 1 2 3 o oo o o o o oo o no interference...
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## This document was uploaded on 01/30/2014.

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