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Unformatted text preview: 1 OTH 4930 Pathophysiology for Rehabilitation Orit Shechtman, Ph.D., OTR/L Department of Occupational Therapy College of Health Professions University of Florida Chapter 6: Inflammation http://www.offthemark.com/phone/phone03.htm Introduction Inflammation is the second line of defense of the body Inflammatory responses begin immediately: within seconds of invasion Inflammation is non-specific: It occurs in the same way no matter what the stimulus is It occurs in the same way whether it is the first or second time of exposure to the same stimulus Introduction Inflammation is triggered by: 1. Cellular injury Injured cells produce mediators (such as heat- shock proteins) 2. Dead cells Host cells Microorganism cells Cells of dead parasites Exudate During inflammation, increased amounts of fluid leak out of the blood vessels into the tissue The fluid is called exudate and it contains plasma, blood cells and protein mediators 2 Exudate The functions of the exudate are to: 1. Dilute the toxic products produced by dying cells 2. Carry plasma proteins and leukocytes (phagocytes, macrophages) to the injury site 3. Carry away dead cells and debris (pus) through the lymphatic system When going through the lymphatic system, antigens pass through the lymph nodes and stimulate B cells and T cells, thus helping the immune response http://www.biologymad.com/Immunology/inflammation.jpg Exudate Depending on the stage of inflammation the exudate changes its composition Serous exudate: early on or in mild inflammation the exudate is watery with few plasma proteins and leukocytes Fibrinous exudate: in a more severe and advanced inflammation the exudate is thick and clotted with a large number of proteins and leukocytes Purulent (suppurative) exudate: with persistent bacterial infections the exudate consists of pus It is characteristic of walled-off lesions (cysts or abscesses) Inflammation During inflammation the biochemical mediators and the cells in the exudate function together to: 1. Destroy the injurious agents and remove them from the injury site 2. Wall off and confine these agents to limit their effects on the host 3. Stimulate and enhance the immune response 4. Promote healing Inflammation Inflammation is a biochemical and cellular process that occurs in vascularized tissue Most components of the inflammatory process are found in the circulation The exudate defends the host against infection and facilitates tissue repair and healing Inflammation is initiated by degranulation of mast cells The granules of mast cells contain chemicals that cause inflammation such as histamine The acute inflammatory response begins with degranulation of mast cells and ends with healing Injury Mechanisms Mast cells are: Cellular bags of granules (histamine) Located in loose connective tissues close to blood vessels The most important activator of the inflammatory...
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- Spring '08