This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: recognize that these efforts are early; developing
a selection of teaching materials will take time. Free webaccessible educational resources would be very helpful.
Third, with curricula already overly full, and without evolutionary biologists on the faculty, few medical schools are positioned to take advantage of these opportunities. Strong leadership will be essential. Creating new courses and integrating
cogent evolutionary examples into existing courses will also be
essential. Time for needed new courses will have to come from
existing courses, but it is dif cult to get disciplines to give up
teaching time no matter how compelling the case for new
content. Some initial implementations will likely be by dean’s
decision, but perhaps some faculties will cooperate to take
advantage of the opportunity. The incorporation of evolutionary
content in existing courses, done well, should recruit support for
nding time to give students the basics early in medical school.
Fourth, we recommend that the impact of implemented
changes be subject to rigorous investigation from the start. This ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. The Berlin Institute for Advanced Study sponsored
much of the research reported here. 1. Futuyma D (2001) Evolution, science, and society. Am Nat 158 (Suppl 4):S1–S46.
2. Stearns SC, Hoekstra RF (2005) Evolution: An introduction (Oxford Univ Press, Oxford),
3. Futuyma DJ (2005) Evolution (Sinauer, Sunderland, MA).
4. Felsenstein J (2004) Inferring Phylogenies (Sinauer, Sunderland, MA).
5. Williams GC (1966) Adaptation and Natural Selection: A Critique of Some Current
Evolutionary Thought (Princeton Univ Press, Princeton).
6. Wright S (1932) The roles of mutation, inbreeding, cross-breeding, and selection in
evolution. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of Genetics, ed Jones DF
(Genetics Society of America, Bethesda), pp 356–366.
7 . T i n b e r g e n N (1 9 6 3 ) O n t h e a i m s a n d m e t h o d s o f e t h o l o g y . Z e i t s c h r i f t T i e r p s y c h o l
8. M a y r E ( 1 9 7 4 ) T e l e o l o g i c al an d t e l eo n o m i c : A n e w a n a l y s i s . B o s t o n S t u d P h i l o S c i
9. Williams GC (1957) Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence.
Evolution (Lawrence, Kans) 11:398–411.
10. Kirkwood T, Austad S (2000) Why do we age? Nature 408:233–238.
11. Fisher RA (1930) The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection (Clarendon, Oxford).
12. Williams GC (1975) Sex and Evolution (Princeton Univ Press, Princeton).
13. Stearns SC (1987) The Evolution of Sex and Its Consequences (Birkhäuser, Boston).
14. Hurst LD (1995) Sel sh genetic elements and their role in evolution: The evolution of
sex and some of what that entails. Philos Trans R Soc London Ser B 349:321–332.
15. Greaves MF (2000) Cancer: The Evolutionary Legacy (Oxford Univ Press, Oxford).
16. Low BS (2000) Why Sex Matters (Princeton Univ Press, Princeton).
17. Stearns SC (1992) The Evolution of Life Histories (Oxford Univ Press, Oxford).
18. Hill K, Hurtado A (1991) The evolution of premature reproductive senescence and
menopause in human females. Hum Nat 2:313–350. 19. H a mi l t o n W D ( 1 9 6 4 ) T h e g e n e t i c a l e v o l u t i o n o f s o c i a l b e h a v i o r I a n d I I . J T h e o r B i o l
20. Hammerstein P (2003) Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation (MIT Press,
21. Kruger DJ, Nesse RM (2006) An evolutionary life-history framework for understanding
sex differences in human mortality rates. Hum Nat 17:74–97.
22. Pollard T (2008) Western Diseases: An Evolutionary Perspective (Cambridge Univ Press,
23. Nesse RM (1990) Evolutionary explanations of emotions. Hum Nat 1:261–289.
24. Nesse RM (2005) Natural selection and the regulation of defenses: A signal detection
analysis of the smoke detector principle. Evol Hum Behav 26:88–105.
25. Trevathan WR, McKenna JJ, Smith EO, eds (2007) Evolutionary Medicine (Oxford Univ
Press, New York), 2nd Ed.
26. Nesse RM, Stearns SC (2008) The great opportunity: Evolutionary applications to
medicine and public health. Evol Appl 1:28–48.
27. Stearns SC, Koella JK, eds (2007) Evolution in Health and Disease (Oxford Univ Press,
Oxford), 2nd Ed.
28. Gluckman PD, Beedle A, Hanson MA (2009) Principles of Evolutionary Medicine
(Oxford Univ Press, Oxford).
29. McVean G, Spencer CC (2006) Scanning the human genome for signals of selection.
Curr Opin Genet Dev 16:624–629.
30. S a b e t i P C , e t a l . ( 2 0 0 6 ) P o s i t i v e n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n i n t h e h u m a n l i n e a g e . S c i e n c e
3 12:161 4– 162 0.
31. Li H, et al. (2008) Ethnic-related selection for an ADH class I variant within East Asia.
PLoS ONE 3:e1881.
32. Crespi B, Badcock C (2007) Psychosis and autism as diametrical disorders of the social
brain. Behav Brain Sci 31:241–261. 1806 | www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0906224106 Conclusion
One hundred and fty years after publication of The Origin of
Species, new advances demonstrate the uti...
View Full Document
This document was uploaded on 01/31/2014.
- Fall '14