Managers who kno w the net are prepared to take the

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Unformatted text preview: s do wn then yo u might as well shut yo ur do o rs and go ho me; it’s nearly impo ssible to get anything do ne if yo u can’t get o nline. Managers who kno w the Net are prepared to take the appro priate steps to secure their f irms and keep their o rganizatio n co nstantly co nnected. 12.2 Internet 101: Understanding How the Internet Works L E A RN I N G OBJ E C T I V E S 1. Describe how the technologies of the I nternet combine to answer these questions: What are you looking for? Where is it? And how do we get there? 2. I nterpret a URL, understand what hosts and domains are, describe how domain registration works, describe cybersquatting, and give examples of conditions that constitute a valid and invalid domain‐related trademark dispute. 3. Describe certain aspects of the I nternet infrastructure that are fault‐tolerant and support load balancing. 4. Discuss the role of hosts, domains, I P addresses, and the DNS in making the I nternet work. The Internet is a netwo rk o f netwo rks—millio ns o f them, actually. If the netwo rk at yo ur university, yo ur emplo yer, o r in yo ur ho me has Internet access, it co nnects to an Int ernet service provider (ISP). Many (but no t all) ISP s are big teleco mmunicatio ns co mpanies like Verizo n, Co mcast, and AT&T. These pro viders co nnect to o ne ano ther, exchanging traf f ic, and ensuring yo ur messages can get to any o ther co mputer that’s o nline and willing to co mmunicate with yo u. The Internet has no center and no o ne o wns it. That’s a go o d thing. The Internet was designed to be redundant and f ault-to lerant—meaning that if o ne netwo rk, co nnecting wire, o r server sto ps wo rking, everything else sho uld keep o n running. Rising f ro m military research and wo rk at educatio nal institutio ns dating as f ar back as the 1960s, the Internet really to o k o f f in the 1990s, when graphical Web bro wsing was invented, and much o f the Internet’s o perating inf rastructure was transitio ned to be suppo rted by private f irms rather than go vernmen...
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