To maintain the lo wer o rbit o3bs satellites o rbit

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Unformatted text preview: it with Wi-Fi. As with o ther 3G and 4G techno lo gies, WiMAX needs cell to wers and o perato rs need to have licensed spectrum f ro m their respective go vernments (o f ten paying multibillio n-do llar f ees to do so ). Average do wnlo ad and uplo ad speeds sho uld start o ut at 3–6 Mbps and 1 Mbps, respectively, altho ugh this may go much higher.N. Lee, “Sprint’s 4G P lans Explained,” CNET, May 19, 2010. WiMAX lo o ks like a particularly attractive o ptio n f o r cable f irms, o f f ering them an o ppo rtunity to get into the mo bile pho ne business and o f f er a “quadruple play” o f services: pay televisio n, bro adband Internet, ho me pho ne, and mo bile. Co mcast and Time Warner have bo th partnered with Clearwire (a f irm majo rity-o wned by Sprint), to gain access to WiMAX-based 4G mo bile. 4G co uld also rewrite the landscape f o r ho me bro adband co mpetitio n. If speeds increase, it may be po ssible f o r P Cs, lapto ps, and set-to p bo xes (STB) to co nnect to the Internet wirelessly via 4G, cutting into DSL, cable, and f iber markets. Satellite Wireless Wireless systems pro vided by earth-bo und base statio ns like cell pho ne to wers are ref erred to as terrestrial w ireless, but it is po ssible to pro vide teleco mmunicatio ns services via satellite. Early services struggled due to a number o f pro blems. Fo r example, the f irst residential satellite services were o nly used f o r do wnlo ads, which still needed a mo dem o r so me o ther co nnectio n to send any messages f ro m the co mputer to the Internet. Many early systems also required large antennas and were quite expensive. Finally, so me services were based o n satellites in geo synchro no us earth o rbit (GEO). GEO satellites circle the earth in a f ixed, o r statio nary, o rbit abo ve a given spo t o n the glo be, but to do so they must be po sitio ned at a distance that is ro ughly equivalent to the planet’s circumf erence. That means signals travel the equivalent o f an aro und-the-wo rl...
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