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Unformatted text preview: such problems? Whose responsibility is this? 5. Search the I nternet for a traceroute tool, or look online to figure out how to use the traceroute command built into your PC. Run three or more traceroutes to different firms at different locations around the world. List the number of I SPs that show up in the trace. Circle the areas where peering occurs. Do some of the “hops” time out with “*” values returned? I f so, why do you think that happened? 6. Find out if your school or employer is an I nternet2 member. I f it is, run traceroutes to schools that are and are not members of I nternet2. What differences do you see in the results? 12.4 Last Mile: Faster Speed, Broader Access L E A RN I N G OBJ E C T I V E S 1. Understand the last‐mile problem and be able to discuss the pros and cons of various broadband technologies, including DSL, cable, fiber, and various wireless offerings. 2. Describe 3G and 4G systems, listing major technologies and their backers. 3. Understand the issue of Net neutrality and put forth arguments supporting or criticiz ing the concept. The Int ernet backbone is made o f f iber-o ptic lines that carry data traf f ic o ver lo ng distances. Tho se lines are pretty speedy. In f act, several backbo ne pro viders, including AT&T and Verizo n, are ro lling o ut inf rastructure with 100 Gbps transmissio n speeds (that’s eno ugh to transmit a two -ho ur high-def initio n [HD] mo vie in abo ut eight seco nds).T. Spangler, “Cisco Clarif ies 100-Gig AT&T Backbo ne Claim,” Multichannel New s, March 9, 2010; Zacks.co m, “AT&T Tests 100 Gb Ethernet in Mo ve to ward Faster Internet,” SeekingAlpha, March 10, 2010. But when co nsidering o verall netwo rk speed, remember Amdah l’s Law: a system’s speed is determined by its slo west co mpo nent.G. Gilder, Teleco sm: Ho w Infinite Bandw idth Will Rev o lutio nize Our Wo rld (New Yo rk: Free P ress, 2000). Mo re o f ten than no t, the bo ttleneck isn’t the backbo ne but the so -called last mile, o r the co nnectio ns that custo mers use to get o nline. High-spe...
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