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Unformatted text preview: nteractive (despite its name,
rather than co mpiled to run directly by a micro pro cesso r. This distinctio n makes them slo wer than
the kinds o f develo pment ef f o rts f o und in mo st co mmercial so f tware. But mo st scripting languages
are usually easy to use, and are o f ten used bo th by pro f essio nal pro grammers and po wer users. K E Y TAK E AWAYS Programs are often written in a tool called an I DE, an application that includes an editor (a sort
of programmer’s word processor), debugger, and compiler, among other tools.
Compiling takes code from the high‐level language that humans can understand and converts
them into the sets of ones and z eros in patterns representing instructions that microprocessors
Popular programming languages include C++, C#, Visual Basic, and Java.
Most software is written for a platform—a combination of an operating system and
Java is designed to be platform independent. Computers running Java have a separate layer
called a Java Virtual Machine that translates (interprets) Java code so that it can be executed on
an operating system/processor combination. I n theory, Java is “write once, run everywhere,” as
opposed to conventional applications that are written for an operating system and compiled for
an OS/processor combination.
Java is popular on mobile phones, enterprise computing, and to make Web sites more
interactive. Java has never been a successful replacement for desktop applications, largely
because user interface differences among the various operating systems are too great to be
easily standardiz ed.
Scripting languages are interpreted languages, such as VB Script or Java Script. Many scripting
languages execute within an application (like the Office programs, a Web browser, or to support
the functions of a Web server). They are usually easier to program, but are less powerful and
execute more slowly than compiled languages. QU E S TI ONS AND E XE RC I S E S
1. List popular programming languages.
2. What’s an I DE? Why do programmers use I DEs? Name I DEs popular for Windows and Mac users.
3. What is the difference between a compiled programming language and an interpreted
4. Name one advantage and one disadvantage of scripting languages.
5. I n addition to computers, on what other technology has Java been deployed? Why do you
suppose Java is particularly attractive for these kinds of applications?
6. What’s a JVM? Why do you need it?
7. What if a programmer wrote perfect Java code, but there was a bug on the JVM installed on a given computer? What might happen?
8. Why would developers choose to write applications in Java? Why might they skip Java and
choose another programming language?
9. Why isn’t Java popular for desktop applications?
10. Go to http://www. java. com. Click on “Do I have Java?” I s Java running on your computer? Which
version? 9.6 Understanding Technology beyond the Price Tag: Total
Cost of Ownership (TCO) and the Cost of Tech Failure
L E A RN I N G OBJ E C T I V E S
1. List the different cost categories that comprise total cost of ownership.
2. Understand that once a system is implemented, the costs of maintaining and supporting the
3. List the reasons that technology development projects fail and the measures that can be taken
to increase the probability of success. Managers sho uld reco gnize that there are a who le ho st o f co sts that are asso ciated with creating
and suppo rting an o rganizatio n’s inf o rmatio n systems. Of co urse, there are pro gramming co sts f o r
custo m so f tware as well as purchase, co nf iguratio n, and licensing co sts f o r packaged so f tware, but
there’s much, much mo re. There are co sts asso ciated with design and do cumentatio n (bo th f o r pro grammers and f o r users).
There are also testing co sts. New pro grams sho uld be tested tho ro ughly acro ss the vario us types o f
hardware the f irm uses, and in co njunctio n with existing so f tware and systems, befo re being
deplo yed thro ugho ut the o rganizatio n. Any erro rs that aren’t caught can slo w do wn a business o r
lead to co stly mistakes that co uld ripple thro ugho ut an o rganizatio n and its partners. Studies have
sho wn that erro rs no t caught bef o re deplo yment co uld be o ne hundred times mo re co stly to
co rrect than if they were detected and co rrected bef o rehand.R. Charette, “Why So f tware Fails,”
IEEE Spectrum, September 2005. Once a system is “turned o n,” the wo rk do esn’t end there. Firms need to co nstantly engage in a ho st
o f activities to suppo rt the system that may also include the f o llo wing: pro viding training and end user suppo rt
co llecting and relaying co mments f o r system impro vements
auditing systems to ensure compliance (i.e., that the system o perates within the f irm’s legal
co nstraints and industry o bligatio ns)
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This document was uploaded on 01/31/2014.
- Winter '14