1 6 the primary evidence the internal revenue agent

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Unformatted text preview: vidence the internal revenue agent will use in the audit of the Jones Company's tax return include all available documentation and other information available in Jones' office or from other sources. For example, when the internal revenue agent audits taxable income, a major source of information will be bank statements, the cash receipts journal and deposit slips. The internal revenue agent is likely to emphasize unrecorded receipts and revenues. For expenses, major sources of evidence are likely to be cancelled checks, vendors' invoices and other supporting documentation. 1-7 This apparent paradox arises from the distinction between the function of auditing and the function of accounting. The accounting function is the recording, classifying and summarizing of economic events to provide relevant information to decision makers. The rules of accounting are the criteria used by the auditor for evaluating the presentation of economic events for financial statements and he or she must therefore have an understanding of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), as well as auditing standards. The accountant need not, and frequently does not, understand what auditors do, unless he or she is involved in doing audits, or has been trained as an auditor. 6-4 1-8 OPERATIONAL AUDITS COMPLIANCE AUDITS AUDITS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS PURPOSE To evaluate whether operating procedures are efficient and effective To determine whether the client is following specific procedures set by higher authority To determine whether the overall financial statements are presented in accordance with specified criteria (usually GAAP) USERS OF AUDIT REPORT Management of organization Authority setting down procedures, internal or external Different groups for different purposes — many outside entities NATURE Highly nonstandard; often subjective Not standardized, but specific and usually objective Highly standardized PERFORMED BY: CPAs Frequently Occasionally Almost universally GAO AUDITORS Frequently Frequently Occasionally IRS AUDITORS Never Universally Never INTERNAL AUDITORS Frequently Frequently Frequently 1-9 Five examples of specific operational audits that could be conducted by an internal auditor in a manufacturing company are: 1. Examine employee time cards and personnel records to determine if sufficient information is available to maximize the effective use of personnel. 2. Review the processing of sales invoices to determine if it could be done more efficiently. 3. Review the acquisitions of goods, including costs, to determine if they are being purchased at the lowest possible cost considering the quality needed. 6-5 1-9 (continued) 4. Review and evaluate the efficiency of the manufacturing process. 5. Review the processing of cash receipts to determine if they are deposited as quickly as possible. 1-10 When auditing historical financial statements, an auditor must have a thorough understanding of the client and its environment. This knowledge should include the clients regulatory and operating environment, business strategies and processes, and measurement indicators. This strategic understanding is also useful in other assurance or consulting engagements. For example, an auditor who is performing an assurance service on information technology would need to understand the client’s business strategies and processes related to information technology, including such things as purchases and sales via the Internet. Similarly, a practitioner performing a consulting engagement to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of a client’s manufacturing process would likely start with an analysis of various measurement indicators, including ratio analysis and benchmarking against key competitors. 1-11 The major differences in the scope of audit responsibilities are: 1. CPAs perform audits in accordance with auditing standards of published financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. 2. GAO auditors perform compliance or operational audits in order to assure the Congress of the expenditure of public funds in accordance with its directives and the law. 3. IRS agents perform compliance audits to enforce the federal tax laws as defined by Congress, interpreted by the courts, and regulated by the IRS. 4. Internal auditors perform compliance or operational audits in order to assure management or the board of directors that controls and policies are properly and consistently developed, applied and evaluated. 1-12 The four parts of the Uniform CPA Examination are: Auditing and Attestation, Financial Accounting and Reporting, Regulation, and Business Environment and Concepts. 1-13 It is important for CPAs to be knowledgeable about e-commerce technologies because more of their clients are rapidly expanding their use of e-commerce. Examples of commonly used e-commerce technologies include purchases and sales of goods through the Internet, automatic inventory reordering via direct connection to inventory suppliers, and online banking. CPAs who perform audits or provide other ass...
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