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Unformatted text preview: 3. The scope of the audit has been restricted . One example is when the
client will not permit the auditor to confirm material receivables. Another
example is when the engagement is not agreed upon until after the client's
year-end when it may be impossible to physically observe inventories.
The financial statements have not been prepared in accordance with
generally accepted accounting principles. An example is when the client
insists upon using replacement costs for fixed assets.
The auditor is not independent. An example is when the auditor owns
stock in the client's business. 3-14 A qualified opinion states that there has been either a limitation on the scope of
the audit or a departure from GAAP in the financial statements, but that the auditor
believes that the overall financial statements are fairly presented. This type of opinion
may not be used if the auditor believes the exceptions being reported upon are extremely
material, in which case a disclaimer or adverse opinion would be used.
An adverse opinion states that the auditor believes the overall financial statements
are so materially misstated or misleading that they do not present fairly in accordance
with GAAP the financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. 9-33 3-14 (continued)
A disclaimer of opinion states that the auditor has been unable to satisfy him or
herself as to whether or not the overall financial statements are fairly presented because
of a significant limitation of the scope of the audit, or a nonindependent relationship
under the Code of Professional Conduct between the auditor and the client.
Examples of situations that are appropriate for each type of opinion are as
Disclaimer EXAMPLE SITUATION
Material physical inventories not observed
and the inventory cannot be verified through
Lack of independence by the auditor. Adverse A highly material departure from GAAP. Qualified Inability to confirm the existence of an asset
which is material but not extremely material
in value. 3-15 The common definition of materiality as it applies to accounting and,
therefore, to audit reporting is:
A misstatement in the financial statements can be considered material if
knowledge of the misstatement would affect a decision of a reasonable user of
Conditions that affect the auditor's determination of materiality include: Potential users of the financial statements
Dollar amounts of the following items: net income before taxes, total
assets, current assets, current liabilities, and owners' equity
Nature of the potential misstatements—certain misstatements, such as
fraud, are likely to be more important to users of the financial statements
than other misstatements. 3-16 Materiality for lack of independence in audit reporting is easiest to define. If the
auditor lacks independence as defined by the Code of Professional Conduct, it is always
considered highly material and therefore a disclaimer of opinion is always necessary.
That is, either the CPA is independent or not independent. For failure to follow GAAP,
there are three levels of materiality: immaterial, material, and highly material. 9-34 3-17 The auditor's opinion may be qualified by scope limitations caused by client
restrictions or by limitations resulting from conditions beyond the client's control. The
former occurs when the client will not, for example, permit the auditor to confirm
material receivables or physically observe inventories. The latter may occur when the
engagement is not agreed upon until after the client's year-end when it may not be
possible to physically observe inventories or confirm receivables.
A disclaimer of opinion is issued if the scope limitation is so material that the
auditor cannot determine if the overall financial statements are fairly presented. If the
scope limitation is caused by the client's restriction the auditor should be aware that the
reason for the restriction might be to deceive the auditor. For this reason, a disclaimer is
more likely for client restrictions than for conditions beyond anyone's control.
When there is a scope restriction that results in the failure to verify material,
but not pervasive accounts, a qualified opinion may be issued. This is more likely when
the scope limitation is for conditions beyond the client's control than for restrictions by
3-18 A report with a scope and an opinion qualification is issued when the auditor can
neither perform procedures that he or she considers necessary nor satisfy him or herself
by using alternative procedures, usually due to the existence of conditions beyond the
client's or the auditor's control, but the amount involved in the financial statements is not
highly material. An important part of a scope and opinion qualification is that it results
from not accumulating sufficient audit evidence, either because of the client's request or
because of circumstances beyond anyone's control.
A report qualified as to opinion only results when the auditor has accumulated
sufficient appropriate evidence but has concluded that the financial statements are not
correctly stated. The only circumstance in which an opinion only qualification is
appropriate is for mat...
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2014 for the course ACCOUNTING 211 taught by Professor Alikapur during the Fall '13 term at American University of Sharjah.
- Fall '13