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David Kang, “Hierarchy and Stability in Asian International Relations” (pp. 163-189)[Constructivist]THE PUZZLE> Realists see “wide disparities in economic and military power among nations in the region, the broad range of political systems that range from democracy to totalitarian, and the lack of international institutions” and predict intense rivalry and instability (163).> Constructivists see Asian nations “reverting to a pattern of hierarchy, [resulting in] increased stability”Also, “the absence of hierarchy leads to conflict”3 Sections of Kang’s essay:The logic of a hierarchic international or regional system,Showing only a slight modification of RealismExamining six centuries of Asian international relations,Showing that this system has successfully functioned in the pastA hierarchic perspective explains three puzzles from the current era that realism has difficulty explainingI. ANARCHY AND HIERARCHY IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS> Constructivism begins with the same neorealist assumptions:Nation-states are the unit of analysisAnarchic systemPower & Geography determine Preferences & PositionRelative position matters in hierarchyHigh mistrust in international systemPrimary concern is survival, secondary concern is economics> Realism assumes EITHER anarchy OR hierarchyConstructivists recognize that nation-states are not equal on the international stageEquality and hierarchy can exist under anarchy> IF nations understand that the central state had no territorial or overweening ambitions, and