Week 5 - Operationalization & Measurement

A hypothesis is never proved but it can be disproved

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Unformatted text preview: itative Methods Many qualitative approaches Participant observation, intensive interviewing, focus groups, content analysis Designed to capture social life as participants experience it Written or spoken words or observations that do not often have a direct numerical interpretation Usually exploratory research questions (though can be used for other types of research, just occurs less often) Quantitative Methods Surveys and experiments Record variation in social life in quantities. Numbers or attributes that can be rank ordered in terms of magnitude. Typically used when the motives for research are explanation, description, or evaluation. Secondary Data Analysis Explore phenomenon using already existing data Quantitative Methods Quantitative Design Issues Variable: a concept that varies Attributes: values or categories of a variable Concepts are translated into the language of variables – this is also known as conceptualization and operationalization Types of Variables: Independent: the cause variable (acts on) Dependent: the effect variable (acted on) Hypotheses A hypothesis is simply a proposition to be tested or a tentative statement of relationship between variables. A hypothesis is never proved, but it can be disproved. Null Hypothesis / Alternative or Research Hypothesis Units and Levels of Analysis Level of Analysis: the level of social reality to which theoretical explanations refer (micro to macro) Units of Analysis: the type of unit a researcher uses when measuring. Examples: Individual Household Social Class A mismatch of units of analysis results in the ecological fallacy Errors in Explanatio...
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